Andrea Prodi

Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy

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Publications (10)24.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This cohort study aims to compare the performance of alternative frequency weightings of hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) for the assessment of the exposure-response relationships for neurosensory disorders and reduced work ability among HTV-exposed workers. In a 3-year follow up study, the occurrence of neurosensory symptoms and reduced work ability, and the response to quantitative sensory testing (grip force, manipulative dexterity, touch sensation) were investigated in 249 HTV-exposed workers and 138 healthy controls. Among the HTV-exposed workers, the sensory outcomes were related to measures of daily vibration exposure expressed in terms of 8-hour energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration magnitude [A(8)]. To calculate A(8), the acceleration magnitudes of vibration were weighted by means of four alternative frequency weightings of HTV. The occurrence of neurosensory symptoms, reduced work ability, and abnormalities of sensory tests was greater among the HTV-exposed workers than the controls. Among the HTV-exposed workers, the deterioration of neurosensory outcomes and the reduction of work ability increased on par with the measures of vibration exposure. Exposure-response models revealed that the four alternative frequency weightings of HTV provided the same predictions for the probability of finger numbness among the exposed workers (observed 36% versus predicted 32%). The findings of this study revealed significant dose-response relationships between measures of vibration exposure, sensory disorders, and reduced work ability among the HTV-exposed workers. There were no differences in the prediction of finger numbness between measures of vibration exposure calculated with alternative frequency weightings of HTV.
    Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 03/2015; 41(3). DOI:10.5271/sjweh.3490 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Primin is the main contact allergen found in the ornamental plant Primula obconica Hance.Objective To analyse the temporal trend of sensitivity to primin in north-eastern Italy and to evaluate the associations with occupations in our geographical area.MethodologyFrom 1996 to 2012, 24 052 consecutive patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested in north-eastern Italy. Individual characteristics were collected through a standardized questionnaire in eight departments of dermatology or occupational medicine.ResultsThe overall prevalence of primin sensitization was 1.9%; the prevalence was significantly higher in women (2.6%) than in men (0.5%). The Pordenone area had the higher prevalence of sensitization, which reached 6% in 1999–2001. We found a significant association between primin sensitization and household workers [odds ratio (OR) 2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.61–3.35], retired people (OR 1.8; 95%CI: 1.22–2.81), woodworkers (OR 2.1; 95%CI: 1.10–6.18), and chemical industry workers (OR 2.9; 95%CI: 1.05–8.29).Conclusion Our study showed that contact allergy to primin is still relevant in north-eastern Italy. The frequency of sensitization is decreasing, but for retired and household workers it is still >4%. Our results suggest the need to promote the use of primin-free P. obconica in Italy.
    Contact Dermatitis 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/cod.12385 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the main health concerns of epoxy resins is their role as skin sensitizer. This sensitization is not uncommon, because the prevalence ranges around 1-12% of the general population. Perform a cross sectional study in a patch test population from Northeastern Italy to investigate the prevalence of epoxy resins sensitization among patients with suspected contact dermatitis. Subsequently, relate findings to patients' occupation and evaluate time trend of prevalence. The final study database included 19 088 consecutive patients, tested from 1996 to 2010 in Northeastern Italy. The overall prevalence of epoxy resins sensitization was 0·89%. Dermatitis most frequently involved hands (40·25%). In both sexes, we find a significant correlation in mechanics, woodworkers, and chemical industry workers; and in males only, among farmers and fishers, construction workers, and unemployed. We found significant increase of sensitization in construction workers in the analyzed period. The overall prevalence of sensitization to epoxy resins in Northeastern Italy is in line with other European countries, but we found an increased risk of sensitization in some professions and an increasing trend of prevalence in construction workers. Better preventive actions are strongly advised in higher risk professions, with particular attentions towards building sector.
    International journal of occupational and environmental health 01/2015; 21(1):82-7. DOI:10.1179/2049396714Y.0000000095 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To investigate the relationships between low back symptoms and alternative measures of external dose and internal spinal dose in professional drivers exposed to whole body vibration (WBV). Methods The occurrence of low back symptoms was investigated in a cohort of 537 drivers over a 2-year follow-up period. Low back pain (LBP), individual characteristics, and work-related risk factors were investigated with a structured questionnaire. Exposure to WBV was evaluated by means of measures of external dose (daily vibration exposure in terms of either equivalent continuous acceleration over an 8-h period (A(8)) or vibration dose value according to the EU Directive on mechanical vibration) and measures of internal lumbar load (daily compressive dose S ed and risk factor R according to ISO/CD 2631-5 2014). Results In the drivers’ cohort, the cumulative incidence of 12-month low back outcomes was 16.8 % for LBP, 9.3 % for chronic LBP, and 21.8 % for sciatic pain. The measures of internal spinal load were better predictors of the occurrence of low back symptoms than the measures of daily vibration exposure. A twofold increase in the risk estimates for low back outcomes was found in the upper quartile of the R factor (0.41–0.72 units) compared to the lower one (0.07–0.19 units). Conclusions In this prospective cohort study, measures of internal spinal dose performed better than measures of daily vibration exposure (external dose) for the prediction of low back outcomes in professional drivers. The ISO boundary values of the risk factor R for low and high probabilities of adverse health effects on the lumbar spine tend to underestimate the health risk in professional drivers.
    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 09/2014; 88(4). DOI:10.1007/s00420-014-0976-z · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Sensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium is frequent in patch test populations. The prevalence is affected by geographical and socio-cultural factors. Objectives. To investigate the temporal trend of nickel, cobalt and chromium contact sensitization between 1996 and 2010 in north-eastern Italy. Patients/methods. Nineteen thousand and eighty-eight patients (67.2% women and 32.8% men) with suspected allergic dermatitis underwent patch testing with the European baseline series. The associations between nickel, cobalt and chromium sensitization and patient age (in quintiles) and year of patch testing were investigated by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. The prevalence of nickel sensitization decreased significantly among younger women (≤26 years), from 38.3% (1996-1998) to 31.9% (2002-2004), 28.3% (2005-2007) and 29.0% (2008-2010), whereas an increase was observed in the 36-45-year and 46-58-year age groups. The overall prevalence of chromium sensitization dropped from 10.2% (1996-1998) to 4.6% (2008-2010) among women, and from 11.3% (1996-1998) to 5.9% (2008-2010) among men. The prevalence of cobalt sensitization increased among younger men (≤26 years), from 2.7% (1996-1998) to 7.3% (1999-2001), 9.6% (2002-2004), and 6.6% (2005-2007). Conclusions. Our study showed a decreasing trend of nickel sensitization (only among younger women) and of chromium sensitization in both sexes.
    Contact Dermatitis 07/2012; 68(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0536.2012.02133.x · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Cosensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium occurs in the general population and in some occupational groups. Objectives. To estimate the isolated and concurrent occurrence of nickel, cobalt and chromium contact sensitization and their association with individual and occupational risk factors. Patients/methods. Twelve thousand four hundred and ninety-two patients were patch tested with the European baseline series between 1997 and 2004 in north-eastern Italy. The associations between patch test results and patient characteristics and occupations were investigated by means of multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results. Of the patients, 34.7% (4334 patients) had one or more positive patch test reactions to metals. As compared with those with negative reactions to all three metals, nickel sensitization was significantly higher in females than in males, not only as monosensitization, but also as cosensitization with cobalt, with chromium, or with both metals. Building and related trades workers showed positive reactions to chromium + nickel [odds ratio (OR) 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-3.76) and chromium + cobalt (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.46-4.67]. Cleaning workers showed a high prevalence of nickel, chromium, nickel + chromium and nickel + cobalt + chromium cosensitization (ORs 1.29, 1.66, 2.11, and 1.79, respectively). An excess risk for cosensitization to all three metals was found in textile and leather workers (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.10-4.33), and in bartenders (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.03-4.26). Conclusions. Some occupational groups are more likely to develop nickel, cobalt and chromium cosensitization.
    Contact Dermatitis 05/2012; 67(6). DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0536.2012.02100.x · 3.62 Impact Factor
  • Dermatitis 05/2012; 23(3):132-3. DOI:10.1097/DER.0b013e31825228ed · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between two job stress models-the job strain (JDC) and the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model-and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in call handler operators. Participants included 74 women (age, 34.9 ± 9.9 years) and 26 men (age 36.0 ± 10.8 years) who were monitored on 2 workdays for ambulatory blood pressure. Measures of both job stress models were related to blood pressure by the generalized estimating equations (GEE) method while adjusting for potential confounders (gender, age, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, educational level, marital status, time of day, and work schedule). Workshifts were associated with an increase of 3-4 and 14 mmHg in mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared with diurnal activities out of work and sleeping period, respectively (P < 0.001). Ambulatory blood pressure was also significantly related with work schedule preference: unpleasant work schedule was associated with an increase of 2 mmHg in MAP compared with pleasant work schedule (P = 0.013). In the ERI model, subjects scoring high in work stress have higher ambulatory blood pressure at work, at home, and during sleep. Work stress by time interaction was not longer significant when controlling for potential confounders: generalized estimating equations revealed that MAP was influenced by BMI (>25 vs. <25: 0.7 (0.2-1.1) mmHg), workshift preference (unpleasant vs. pleasant: 2 (0.4-3.6) mmHg), and time of day. Weak not significant relation was found between ABP and psychosocial factors evaluated by the JDC and ERI models. These results do not support work stress as a significant factor influencing ABP in a homogeneous group of call-handlers. Complementary information independently obtained from the two work stress models could provide more exhaustive explanations on the stress-related effects on blood pressure.
    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 04/2011; 84(4):383-91. DOI:10.1007/s00420-010-0576-5 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to nickel, cobalt and chromate are important causes of occupational contact dermatitis. To estimate the prevalence of nickel, cobalt and chromate allergy in a population of consecutive patients and to investigate the possible association with individual and occupational risk factors. A total of 14 464 patients (67.6% women and 32.4% men) with suspected allergic dermatitis underwent patch tests. The associations between patch test results and occupations were studied by multivariate logistic regression analysis. About 24.6% of the patients reacted positively to nickel sulphate, 10.2% to cobalt chloride and 8.7% to potassium dichromate. Nickel sensitization was higher in women aged 26-35 years in comparison with the youngest group (15-25 years) and the older group (> 45 years). In women, the prevalence of positive reactions to nickel was positively associated with metal and mechanical work (OR 1.54; 95%, CI 1.16-2.05). Chromate sensitization was more prevalent in building trade workers for both women (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.00-2.49) and men (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.55-3.22). Cobalt sensitization was associated with textile and leather work in women (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.09-2.12) and with cleaning work in men (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.18-2.93). Our study showed interesting associations between some occupations and nickel, chromate and cobalt allergy.
    Contact Dermatitis 04/2010; 62(4):225-31. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0536.2009.01650.x · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nine hundred building trade workers and 4372 office workers (from a database of 16267 patients) with suspected allergic dermatitis, underwent patch tests. The associations between patch test results and occupations were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. As expected, building trade work was significantly associated with chromium sensitization (OR 1.55; 95% IC 1.22-1.97), a well known occupational hapten in this occupational group. An increased risk for epoxy resin sensitization (OR 3.80; 95% IC 2.11-6.86) and thiuram mix sensitization (OR 1.69; 95% IC 1.07-2.65) was also found in the construction workers. Epoxy resin is a strong skin sensitizer widely used in building trade, while thiuram mix is often present as an additive in the rubber gloves used by construction workers. These findings suggest that effective measures to prevent allergic contact dermatitis are needed in the construction workers.
    Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia 34(3 Suppl):153-5.