Lauren M. Pintor

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States

Are you Lauren M. Pintor?

Claim your profile

Publications (14)38.12 Total impact

  • LM Pintor, KE McGhee, DP Roche, AM Bell
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that behavioral flexibility is associated with the ability to adaptively respond to environmental change. Flexibility can be advantageous in some contexts such as exploiting novel resources, but it may come at a cost of accuracy or performance in ecologically relevant tasks, such as foraging. Such trade-offs may, in part, explain why individuals within a species are not equally flexible. Here, we conducted a reversal learning task and predation experiment on a top fish predator, the Northern pike (Esox lucius), to examine individual variation in flexibility and test the hypothesis that an individual’s behavioral flexibility is negatively related with its foraging performance. Pikes were trained to receive a food reward from either a red or blue cup and then the color of the rewarded cup was reversed. We found that pike improved over time in how quickly they oriented to the rewarded cup, but there was a bias toward the color red. Moreover, there was substantial variation among individuals in their ability to overcome this red bias and switch from an unrewarded red cup to the rewarded blue cup, which we interpret as consistent variation among individuals in behavioral flexibility. Furthermore, individual differences in behavioral flexibility were negatively associated with foraging performance on ecologically relevant stickleback prey. Our data indicate that individuals cannot be both behaviorally flexible and efficient predators, suggesting a trade-off between these two traits.
    Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 10/2014; 68(10):1711-1722. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Katie E McGhee, Lauren M Pintor, Alison M Bell
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract How predators and prey interact has important consequences for population dynamics and community stability. Here we explored how predator-prey interactions are simultaneously affected by reciprocal behavioral plasticity (i.e., plasticity in prey defenses countered by plasticity in predator offenses and vice versa) and consistent individual behavioral variation (i.e., behavioral types) within both predator and prey populations. We assessed the behavior of a predator species (northern pike) and a prey species (three-spined stickleback) during one-on-one encounters. We also measured additional behavioral and morphological traits in each species. Using structural equation modeling, we found that reciprocal behavioral plasticity as well as predator and prey behavioral types influenced how individuals behaved during an interaction. Thus, the progression and ultimate outcome of predator-prey interactions depend on both the dynamic behavioral feedback occurring during the encounter and the underlying behavioral type of each participant. We also examined whether predator behavioral type is underlain by differences in metabolism and organ size. We provide some of the first evidence that behavioral type is related to resting metabolic rate and size of a sensory organ (the eyes). Understanding the extent to which reciprocal behavioral plasticity and intraspecific behavioral variation influence the outcome of species interactions could provide insight into the maintenance of behavioral variation as well as community dynamics.
    The American Naturalist 12/2013; 182(6):704-717. · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • Katie E. McGhee, Lauren M. Pintor, Alison M. Bell
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: How predators and prey interact has important consequences for population dynamics and community stability. Here, we explored how predator-prey interactions are simultaneously affected by reciprocal behavioral plasticity (i.e., plasticity in prey defenses countered by plasticity in predator offenses and vice versa) and consistent individual behavioral variation (i.e., behavioral types) within both predator and prey populations. We assessed the behavior of a predator species (Northern pike) and a prey species (threespined stickleback) during one-on-one encounters. We also measured additional behavioral and morphological traits in each species. Using structural equation modeling, we found that reciprocal behavioral plasticity as well as predator and prey behavioral types influenced how individuals behaved during an interaction. Thus, the progression and ultimate outcome of predator-prey interactions depend on both the dynamic behavioral feedback occurring during the encounter and the underlying behavioral type of each participant. We also examined whether predator behavioral type is underlain by differences in metabolism and organ size. We provide some of the first evidence that behavioral type is related to resting metabolic rate and the size of a sensory organ (eyes). Understanding the extent to which reciprocal behavioral plasticity and intraspecific behavioral variation influence the outcome of species interactions could provide insight into the maintenance of behavioral variation, as well as community dynamics.
    The American Naturalist 11/2013; · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1. Adaptive maternal programming occurs when mothers alter their offspring's phenotype in response to environmental information such that it improves offspring fitness. When a mother's environment is predictive of the conditions her offspring are likely to encounter, such transgenerational plasticity enables offspring to be better-prepared for this particular environment. However, maternal effects can also have deleterious effects on fitness.2. Here, we test whether female threespined stickleback fish exposed to predation risk adaptively prepare their offspring to cope with predators. We either exposed gravid females to a model predator or not, and compared their offspring's antipredator behaviour and survival when alone with a live predator. Importantly, we measured offspring behaviour and survival in the face of the same type of predator that threatened their mothers (Northern pike).3. We did not find evidence for adaptive maternal programming; offspring of predator-exposed mothers were less likely to orient to the predator than offspring from unexposed mothers. In our predation assay, orienting to the predator was an effective antipredator behaviour and those that oriented, survived for longer.4. In addition, offspring from predator-exposed mothers were caught more quickly by the predator on average than offspring from unexposed mothers. The difference in antipredator behaviour between the maternal predator-exposure treatments offers a potential behavioural mechanism contributing to the difference in survival between maternal treatments.5. However, the strength and direction of the maternal effect on offspring survival depended on offspring size. Specifically, the larger the offspring from predator-exposed mothers, the more vulnerable they were to predation compared to offspring from unexposed mothers.6. Our results suggest that the predation risk perceived by mothers can have long-term behavioural and fitness consequences for offspring in response to the same predator. These stress-mediated maternal effects can have nonadaptive consequences for offspring when they find themselves alone with a predator. In addition, complex interactions between such maternal effects and offspring traits such as size can influence our conclusions about the adaptive nature of maternal effects.
    Functional Ecology 08/2012; 26(4):932-940. · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Lauren M Pintor, Joel S Brown, Thomas L Vincent
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although biological invasions pose serious threats to biodiversity, they also provide the opportunity to better understand interactions between the ecological and evolutionary processes structuring populations and communities. However, ecoevolutionary frameworks for studying species invasions are lacking. We propose using game theory and the concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) as a conceptual framework for integrating the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of invasions. We suggest that the pathways by which a recipient community may have no ESS provide mechanistic hypotheses for how such communities may be vulnerable to invasion and how invaders can exploit these vulnerabilities. We distinguish among these pathways by formalizing the evolutionary contexts of the invader relative to the recipient community. We model both the ecological and the adaptive dynamics of the interacting species. We show how the ESS concept provides new mechanistic hypotheses for when invasions result in long- or short-term increases in biodiversity, species replacement, and subsequent evolutionary changes.
    The American Naturalist 04/2011; 177(4):410-23. · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Lauren M. Pintor, Andrew Sih
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is growing support for the general notion that the drivers of invasion success often shift from biotic to abiotic factors with increasing spatial scale. Most of this research, however, has been conducted on a single trophic level; i.e. it has primarily looked at how the diversity of native competitors may influence invasion success. Less attention has been paid to understanding how native prey diversity may influence the invasion success of exotic predators and whether such biotic factors are scale-dependent. We used a hierarchical spatial survey of 17 stream communities to test whether native prey diversity, along with native prey biomass, algal resource abundance and annual stream discharge, influenced the abundance of an exotic crayfish predator, and whether the importance of these factors were scale-dependent. We used a hierarchical generalized linear model to evaluate the influence of these community and stream characteristics on exotic crayfish abundance at both the transect scale (1m2) and the stream scale (400m2). Our results indicated that at the stream scale, high stream discharge significantly limited invader abundance. However, at the smaller transect scale, native prey biomass was a significant driver of invasion success and positively correlated with invader abundance. We suggest that our results add to the emerging pattern that abiotic processes are stronger determinants of invasion success at large spatial scales, whereas biotic processes become more important with decreasing spatial scale. However, for predator invasions, prey biomass, not prey diversity may be a more important for driver of invasion success at small spatial scales. KeywordsBiological invasions–Prey diversity–Predator invasions–Scale-dependent–Natural disturbance
    Biological Invasions 01/2011; 13(6):1357-1366. · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a framework for explaining variation in predator invasion success and predator impacts on native prey that integrates information about predator–prey naïveté, predator and prey behavioral responses to each other, consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators on prey, and interacting effects of multiple species interactions. We begin with the ‘naïve prey’ hypothesis that posits that naïve, native prey that lack evolutionary history with non-native predators suffer heavy predation because they exhibit ineffective antipredator responses to novel predators. Not all naïve prey, however, show ineffective antipredator responses to novel predators. To explain variation in prey response to novel predators, we focus on the interaction between prey use of general versus specific cues and responses, and the functional similarity of non-native and native predators. Effective antipredator responses reduce predation rates (reduce consumptive effects of predators, CEs), but often also carry costs that result in non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of predators. We contrast expected CEs versus NCEs for non-native versus native predators, and discuss how differences in the relative magnitudes of CEs and NCEs might influence invasion dynamics. Going beyond the effects of naïve prey, we discuss how the ‘naïve prey’, ‘enemy release’ and ‘evolution of increased competitive ability’ (EICA) hypotheses are inter-related, and how the importance of all three might be mediated by prey and predator naïveté. These ideas hinge on the notion that non-native predators enjoy a ‘novelty advantage’ associated with the naïveté of native prey and top predators. However, non-native predators could instead suffer from a novelty disadvantage because they are also naïve to their new prey and potential predators. We hypothesize that patterns of community similarity and evolution might explain the variation in novelty advantage that can underlie variation in invasion outcomes. Finally, we discuss management implications of our framework, including suggestions for managing invasive predators, predator reintroductions and biological control.
    Oikos 03/2010; 119(4):610 - 621. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Lauren M Pintor, Andrew Sih, Jacob L Kerby
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The fact that superabundant invasive pests are also sometimes highly aggressive represents an interesting paradox. Strong intraspecific aggression should result in high intraspecific competition and limit the densities reached by exotic species. One mechanism that can allow invaders to attain high densities despite high intraspecific aggression, involves positive correlations between aggression and other behaviors such as foraging activity. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to quantify the ecological implications of correlations between aggressiveness and foraging activity among groups of exotic signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) at low and high densities. Our results showed that high invader densities increased intraspecific aggression and per capita interactions between crayfish, but also increased foraging activity and impacts on preferred prey. As a result, exotic crayfish did not show density-dependent reductions in per capita feeding or growth rates. We suggest that the positive correlation between aggression and activity is part of an aggression syndrome whereby some individuals are generally more aggressive/active than others across situations. An aggression syndrome can couple aggressive behaviors important to population establishment of invasive species with foraging activity that enhances the ability of invaders to attain high densities and have large impacts on invaded communities.
    Ecology 04/2009; 90(3):581-7. · 5.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Lauren M. Pintor, Andrew Sih
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The competitive displacement of native by introduced species has often been attributed to differences in growth and behavior of the invader with its competitors. However, is the contribution of these traits to invasion success due to different competitor species between the native and introduced ranges or to differences among populations of the invader? Here we compared the growth and foraging behavior of the rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) from its native and introduced ranges when competing with congeners from both ranges (O. cristavarius and O. propinquus, respectively). Our results indicated that O. rusticus from the introduced range grew significantly more than native O. rusticus and that there was no effect of competitor species on the growth of O. rusticus. Thus, the contribution of higher growth rates to the invasion success of O. rusticus was a result of population differences of O. rusticus in contrast to differences between congeners across both ranges. Foraging activity and recruitment to bait were higher in introduced versus native populations of O. rusticus when competing with O. cristavarius, but, not when competing with O. propinquus. Rather, O. propinquus significantly recruited to bait first when competing with either population of O. rusticus. However, 57% of the time that O. propinquus was first to find the bait, introduced O. rusticus aggressively pirated the bait from O. propinquus. In contrast, native O. rusticus were never observed pirating bait from O. propinquus. We suggest that this behavior may, in part, explain the higher growth observed in introduced populations of O. rusticus. The differences in behavior between O. rusticus populations depending on the competitor species may be due to behavioral flexibility that may drive higher growth rates in introduced populations of this species.
    Biological Invasions 01/2009; 11(8):1895-1902. · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Lauren M. Pintor, Andrew Sih, Marissa L. Bauer
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aggressiveness, along with foraging voracity and boldness, are key behavioral mechanisms underlying the competitive displacement and invasion success of exotic species. However, do aggressiveness, voracity and boldness of the invader depend on the presence of an ecologically similar native competitor in the invaded community? We conducted four behavioral assays to compare aggression, foraging voracity, threat response and boldness to forage under predation risk of multiple populations of exotic signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus across its native and invaded range with and without a native congener, the Shasta crayfish P. fortis. We predicted that signal crayfish from the invaded range and sympatric with a native congener (IRS) should be more aggressive to outcompete a close competitor than populations from the native range (NR) or invaded range and allopatric to a native congener (IRA). Furthermore, we predicted that IRS populations of signal crayfish should be more voracious, but less bold to forage under predation risk since native predators and prey likely possess appropriate behavioral responses to the invader. Contrary to our predictions, results indicated that IRA signal crayfish were more aggressive towards conspecifics and more voracious and active foragers, yet also bolder to forage under predation risk in comparison to NR and IRS populations, which did not differ in behavior. Higher aggression/voracity/boldness was positively correlated with prey consumption rates, and hence potential impacts on prey. We suggest that the positive correlations between aggression/voracity/boldness are the result of an overall aggression syndrome. Results of stream surveys indicated that IRA streams have significantly lower prey biomass than in IRS streams, which may drive invading signal crayfish to be more aggressive/voracious/bold to acquire resources to establish a population.
    Oikos 10/2008; 117(11):1629 - 1636. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    01/2007;
  • Source
    Lauren M. Pintor, Daniel A. Soluk
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Failure to consider both the consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators on prey can lead to erroneous conclusions about the net effect of the relationship. The predatory devil crayfish, Cambarus diogenes Girard functions as an ecosystem engineer constructing extensive burrow systems through aquatic habitats. Despite crayfish posing a serious predation threat, preliminary data indicate that the federally endangered Hines Emerald dragonfly larvae, Somatochlora hineana Williamson regularly inhabit crayfish burrows. During late summer, S. hineana larval habitat dries up; leaving crayfish burrows as some of the only wetted habitats. Thus, C. diogenes can affect S. hineana through both direct, negative and indirect positive effects. We examined the positive role of crayfish burrows as drought refuges, and the threat of predation by C. diogenes on S. hineana larvae. Monthly field sampling indicated that S. hineana use open channel areas in spring and early summer moving into burrow systems in mid summer when channel areas normally dry. Laboratory experiments and field observations confirmed that crayfish prey on S. hineana larvae. Adult crayfish were a larger predation threat than juvenile crayfish. Despite their negative predatory impact, removal of crayfish from burrows in the field did not enhance densities of S. hineana larvae. Although S. hineana may face the threat of predation in burrows, they face a greater risk of desiccation if they remain in the open channel. These results lead to the counterintuitive conclusion that the maintenance of a predator is important for conserving an endangered prey species.
    Biological Conservation. 01/2006;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A recent review by Lind and Cresswell (2005) noted some important difficulties with quantifying the fitness consequences of antipredator behaviors. In this paper, we discuss the conceptual and analytical tools available to behavioral ecologists for approach-ing the question of adaptive value in the broader context of whole organism performance and total fitness. Because these tools already exist, we feel that determining the fitness consequences of antipredator behavior, or any behavior for that matter, is not intractable. Instead, it seems that both the challenge and the solution lie in linking the theoretical concepts of evolutionary biologists to the empirical data typically collected by behavioral ecologists. We hope that this paper will help forge this link as well as serve as a reminder that when grounded in natural history and an appropriate quantitative, conceptual framework, empirical studies can still provide detailed answers to the increasingly complex questions we ask. Key words: antipredator behavior, fitness, multivariate selection analysis, path analysis, phenotypic integration. [Behav Ecol] B ehavioral ecologists have long been interested in under-standing the adaptive value of antipredator behavior (Sih 1987; Lima and Dill 1990; Lima 1998). A recent review by Lind and Cresswell (2005), however, noted some important difficul-ties with quantifying the fitness consequences of antipredator behaviors. In essence, Lind and Cresswell suggest that most studies do not provide strong evidence on the adaptive value of antipredator behavior because they do not consider 1) trade-offs between antipredator and reproductive perfor-mance, 2) the abilities of organisms to avoid fitness losses asso-ciated with constraints on focal traits by employing behavioral alternatives (behavioral compensation), and 3) the effects of behavioral defenses at different stages of the predation se-quence. The authors rightfully assert that an understanding of these issues can only be accomplished by measuring multi-ple traits and fitness components (i.e., survival and reproduc-tion). Nevertheless, the question of how to integrate such data into a coherent analysis of adaptive value was left unclear. Our discussion therefore has 2 main goals: 1) to illustrate how the concerns addressed by Lind and Cresswell can be unified and generalized to include a variety of other issues under the conceptual framework of phenotypic integration and 2) to de-scribe 2 quantitative techniques that exist within that frame-work for addressing the question of adaptive value. We begin by reiterating the main points made by Lind and Cresswell with a hypothetical example (illustrated in Figure 1). Imagine an aquatic invertebrate prey species coexisting with predatory fish. One response exhibited by these prey when they sense fish is to become inactive. By reducing the rate at which the prey encounter and are detected by predators, this behavior reduces the prey's overall probability of being attacked. With respect to predator avoidance, this behavior is clearly adaptive. However, inactivity also lowers encounter rates between prey and their resources. This leads to poor foraging performance in both the presence and absence of predators. The result is a trade-off between predator avoid-ance and foraging success. Now imagine the prey species has 2 alternative behaviors, inactivity and hiding in refuges, which reduce its probability of being attacked by predators. Here, behavioral compensation can occur, wherein individu-als that do not become inactive in the presence of predators can still avoid being attacked by hiding. The result is that the expected positive correlation of one trait (inactivity) with fit-ness is masked by the effect of the other trait (hiding), which confers high fitness irrespective of an individual's activity level (Figure 1, black boxes). Next, consider that behavioral traits can have different effects at different stages of the predation sequence (e.g., probabilities of attack and probability of cap-ture given an attack, Figure 1, gray boxes). For example, while inactivity reduces an individual's probability of being attacked by a predator, performing this behavior means that escape responses are delayed. Thus, if attacked, inactivity increases an individual's probability of being captured. This example illustrates how a single trait can have different effects on fit-ness through alternative pathways and how multiple traits can interact to affect fitness. Recent studies of prey behavior show that these complex phenomena are common in nature (DeWitt et al. 1999; Hedrick 2000; McCarthy and Fisher 2000; DeWitt and Langerhans 2003; Ghalambor et al. 2003; Relyea 2004; Sih, Bell, and Johnson 2004; Sih, Bell, Johnson, and Ziemba 2004; Kishida and Nishimura 2005). In the face of such complexity, determining the fitness con-sequences of antipredator behavior is indeed a difficult task. Nevertheless, there are relevant conceptual and analytical tools currently available for addressing integrated behavioral responses. Because these tools already exist, we feel that ac-counting for the complexity associated with understanding the fitness consequences of antipredator behavior, or any be-havior for that matter, is not intractable. Instead, it seems that both the challenge and the solution lie in linking the theo-retical concepts of evolutionary biologists to the empirical data typically collected by behavioral ecologists. In particular, the issues highlighted by Lind and Cresswell center around covariation between functionally related traits and can be uni-fied under the conceptual framework of phenotypic integra-tion. Phenotypic integration has been defined as ''the pattern
    01/2006;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Final Report of Findings (September 1997- June 1999) INHS Technical Report prepared for Illinois Department of Natural Resources and United States Fish and Wildlife Service

Publication Stats

122 Citations
38.12 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2013
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • School of Integrative Biology
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
    • University of South Dakota
      • Department of Biology
      Vermillion, SD, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Georgia
      • Odum School of Ecology
      Athens, GA, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Environmental Science and Policy
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Chicago, IL, United States