L Chevalier

French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Avignon, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France

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Publications (6)22.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:High protein (HP) diets during energy restriction have been studied extensively regarding their ability to reduce body fat and preserve lean body mass, but little is known about their effects on protein metabolism in lean tissues.OBJECTIVE:To determine the effects of energy restriction and protein intake on protein anabolism and catabolism in rats.METHODS:For 5 weeks, 56 male Wistar rats were fed an obesity induction (OI) diet . They were then subjected to a 40% energy restriction using the OI diet or a balanced HP diet for 3 weeks, whereas a control group was fed the OI diet ad libitum (n=8 per group). HP-restricted rats were divided into five groups differing only in terms of their protein source: total milk proteins, casein (C), whey (W), a mix of 50% C and W, and soy (n=8). The animals were then killed in the postprandial state and their body composition was determined. Protein synthesis rates were determined in the liver, gastrocnemius and kidney using a subcutaneous (13)C valine flooding dose. mRNA levels were measured for key enzymes involved in the three proteolysis pathways.RESULTS:Energy restriction, but not diet composition, impacted weight loss and adiposity, whereas lean tissue mass (except in the kidney) was not influenced by diet composition. Levels of neoglucogenic amino acids tended to fall under energy restriction (P<0.06) but this was reversed by a high level of protein. The postprandial protein synthesis rates in different organs were similar in all groups. By contrast, mRNA levels encoding proteolytic enzymes rose under energy restriction in the muscle and kidney, but this was counteracted by a HP level.CONCLUSIONS:In adult obese rats, energy restriction but not diet composition affected fat pads and had little impact on protein metabolism, despite marked effects on proteolysis in the kidney and muscle.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 21 February 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.19.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 02/2012; · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We had previously observed that drastic increases in protein consumption greatly modified hepatic protein anabolism in rats, but the confounding effects of other macronutrient changes or a moderate protein increase to generate the same modifications have not yet been established. This study examined the metabolic and hormonal responses of rats subjected to 14-day isoenergetic diets containing normal, intermediate, or high-protein levels (NP: 14% of energy, IP: 33%, HP: 50%) and different carbohydrate (CHO) to fat ratios within each protein level. Fasted or fed rats (n = 104) were killed after the injection of a flooding dose of (13)C-valine. The hepatic protein content increased in line with the dietary protein level (P < 0.05). The hepatic fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of protein were significantly influenced by both the protein level and the nutritional state (fasted vs. fed) (P < 0.0001) but not by the CHO level, reaching on average 110%/day, 92%/day, and 83%/day in rats fed the NP, IP, and HP diets, respectively. The FSR of plasma albumin and muscle did not differ between diets, while feeding tended to increase muscle FSR. Proteolysis, especially the proteasome-dependent system, was down-regulated in the fed state in the liver when protein content increased. Insulin decreased with the CHO level in the diet. Our results reveal that excess dietary protein lowers hepatic constitutive, but not exported, protein synthesis rates, independently of the other macronutrients, and related changes in insulin levels. This response was observed at the moderate levels of protein intake (33%) that are plausible in a context of human consumption.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10/2010; 299(6):R1720-30. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-protein diets give rise to increased amplitude in the diurnal cycling of protein gains and losses at the whole-body level, but the tissue localization and mechanisms underlying these metabolic adaptations remain unclear. We investigated tissue-specific responses to increasing protein intakes in rats. Protein synthesis rates (flooding dose with (13)C-valine) and accretion were assessed in individual tissues of fasted or fed rats (n = 32) after a 2-wk adaptation to a normal- or high-protein (HP) diet. In livers of HP rats, a strong inhibition of protein synthesis rates (-34%) occurred in the fasted and fed states, whereas a higher protein content (+10%) was observed. In the kidneys, a slight inhibition of synthesis rates after the HP diet was also observed but remained without effect on kidney protein pool size. Stomach and skin protein synthesis rates were significantly increased under HP conditions, whereas protein anabolism in skeletal muscle remained insensitive to the dietary protein level. This was also true for specific muscle protein fractions: myosin, mitochondrial, or sarcoplasmic protein synthesis rates were influenced by neither the dietary protein level nor the nutritional status. Modulation of protein kinetics and accretion by the HP diet is tissue-specific and the liver plays a critical role in such adaptations in a unique situation associating an inhibition of protein synthesis and protein pool expansion. The mechanisms underlying these changes and their physiologic incidence remain to be elucidated.
    Nutrition 06/2009; 25(9):932-9. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 06/2008; 67(OCE):E199. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 06/2008; 67(OCE):E202. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 06/2008; 67(OCE):E201. · 3.67 Impact Factor