Publications (2)0 Total impact
ABSTRACT: The antenna array LOPES is set up at the location of the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower experiment in Karlsruhe, Germany and aims to measure and investigate radio pulses from Extensive Air Showers. The coincident measurements allow us to reconstruct the electric field strength at observation level in dependence of general EAS parameters. In the present work, the lateral distribution of the radio signal in air showers is studied in detail. It is found that the lateral distributions of the electric field strengths in individual EAS can be described by an exponential function. For about 20% of the events a flattening towards the shower axis is observed, preferentially for showers with large inclination angle. The estimated scale parameters R0 describing the slope of the lateral profiles range between 100 and 200 m. No evidence for a direct correlation of R0 with shower parameters like azimuth angle, geomagnetic angle, or primary energy can be found. This indicates that the lateral profile is an intrinsic property of the radio emission during the shower development which makes the radio detection technique suitable for large scale applications. Comment: accepted by Astroparticle Physics
ABSTRACT: AIMS: To demonstrate and test the capability of the next generation of low-frequency radio telescopes to perform high resolution observations across intra-continental baselines. Jupiter's strong burst emission is used to perform broadband full signal cross-correlations on time intervals of up to hundreds of milliseconds. METHODS: Broadband VLBI observations at about 20 MHz on a baseline of ~50000 wavelengths were performed to achieve arcsecond angular resolution. LOFAR's Initial Test Station (LOFAR/ITS, The Netherlands) and the Nancay Decametric Array (NDA, France) digitize the measured electric field with 12 bit and 14 bit in a 40 MHz baseband. The fine structure in Jupiter's signal was used for data synchronization prior to correlation on the time-series data. RESULTS: Strong emission from Jupiter was detected during snapshots of a few seconds and detailed features down to microsecond time-scales were identified in dynamic spectra. Correlations of Jupiter's burst emission returned strong fringes on 1 ms time-scales over channels as narrow as a hundred kilohertz bandwidth. CONCLUSIONS: Long baseline interferometry is confirmed at low frequencies, in spite of phase shifts introduced by variations in ionospheric propagation characteristics. Phase coherence was preserved over tens to hundreds of milliseconds with a baseline of ~700 km. No significant variation with time was found in the correlations and an estimate for the fringe visibility of 1, suggested that the source was not resolved. The upper limit on the source region size of Jupiter Io-B S-bursts corresponds to an angular resolution of ~3 arcsec. Adding remote stations to the LOFAR network at baselines up to thousand kilometers will provide 10 times higher resolution down to an arcsecond.