Liia D Vainchtein

Astellas Pharmaceutical, Northbrook, Illinois, Japan

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Publications (14)32.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study quantified the impact of drug pathway-associated genetic variants on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thirty-seven patients with advanced NSCLC were sampled for plasma concentrations of gemcitabine, difluoro-deoxy uridine (dFdU), intracellular gemcitabine triphosphates (dFdCTP), and unbound platinum concentrations after gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) i.v. followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m(2). We analyzed 13 germline single nucleotide polymorphisms and one deletion-glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1-within six drug pathway-associated genes (GSTM1, GSTP1, cytidine deaminase (CDA), solute carrier (SLC) 28A1, SLC28A2, and deoxycytidine kinase). PK models were fitted to the data using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, and genetic data were tested on drug PK and hematological toxicity. Patients carrying the nonsynonymous CDA SNP 79A >C (CDA*2) had a 21% lower gemcitabine clearance as compared to wild-type patients (outcomes and complications.0.0009), but the risk for chemotherapy-associated neutropenia (61% vs. 32%, P = 0.07) and severe neutropenia (17% vs. 5%, P = 0.26) was not significantly higher. Other gene polymorphisms were not associated with drug PK parameters or hematological toxicity. The known functional mutant variant CDA*3 was not found in any of the patients. Although the mutant CDA*2 allele results in an increased exposure to gemcitabine in Caucasian patients, this study gives no definite conclusion on the clinical relevance of this finding. Further studies should look into the relationship between CDA genotypes, plasmatic CDA activity, and clinical outcome in patients receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/2011; 69(1):25-33. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of capecitabine and its metabolites 5'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5'-DFCR), 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouracil (5'-DFUR), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and dihydro-5-fluorouracil (FUH(2)) in human plasma. A 200 microL human plasma aliquot was spiked with a mixture of internal standards fludarabine and 5-chlorouracil. A single-step protein precipitation method was employed using 10% (v/v) trichloroacetic acid in water to separate analytes from bio-matrices. Volumes of 20 microL of the supernatant were directly injected onto the HPLC system. Separation was achieved on a 30 x 2.1 mm Hypercarb (porous graphitic carbon) column using a gradient by mixing 10 mm ammonium acetate and acetonitrile-2-propanol-tetrahydrofuran (1 : 3 : 2.25, v/v/v). The detection was performed using a Finnigan TSQ Quantum Ultra equipped with the electrospray ion source operated in positive and negative mode. The assay quantifies a range from 10 to 1000 ng/mL for capecitabine, from 10 to 5000 ng/mL for 5'-DFCR and 5'-DFUR, and from 50 to 5000 ng/mL for 5-FU and FUH(2) using a plasma sample of 200 microL. Correlation coefficients (r(2)) of the calibration curves in human plasma were better than 0.99 for all compounds. At all concentration levels, deviations of measured concentrations from nominal concentration were between -4.41 and 3.65% with CV values less than 12.0% for capecitabine, between -7.00 and 6.59% with CV values less than 13.0 for 5'-DFUR, between -3.25 and 4.11% with CV values less than 9.34% for 5'-DFCR, between -5.54 and 5.91% with CV values less than 9.69% for 5-FU and between -4.26 and 6.86% with CV values less than 14.9% for FUH(2). The described method was successfully applied for the evaluation of the pharmacokinetic profile of capecitabine and its metabolites in plasma of treated cancer patients.
    Biomedical Chromatography 09/2009; 24(4):374-86. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Indibulin (ZIO-301/D-24851) is an orally applied small molecule with antitumor activity based upon destabilization of microtubule polymerization. The purpose of this phase I study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) as well as the dose limiting toxicity (DLT), the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of orally administered indibulin as capsule formulation in patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients received a single dose of indibulin. Seven dose-levels were evaluated: 100 mg, 150 mg, 250 mg, 350 mg and 600 mg once daily (QD), 450 mg and 600 mg twice daily (BID). After a washout period, patients received indibulin at the pre-defined daily dose for 14 days every 3 weeks (multiple dose part). A total of 28 patients entered the study. Indibulin administered as capsules was generally well tolerated. The MTD was not reached. There was a disproportionate increase of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) with dose, with declining AUC corrected for dose starting at the 250 mg dose-level. There was no significant difference in AUC of indibulin after multiple dosing (day 1-14) compared to single administration (day-4). Inter-patient variability in AUC (102% CV) was high. A plateau in drug exposure was observed prior to reaching the MTD. Continued dose-escalation was unlikely to yield any increase in exposure of indibulin. The formulation needs optimization to increase the systemic exposure upon oral administration.
    Investigational New Drugs 05/2009; 28(2):163-70. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two new bladder instillations of the investigational anticancer agent EO-9 containing 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP beta CD) and the alkalizers sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and tri(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) were developed. During the stability study of these freeze-dried products, formation of new degradation products was seen. We have characterized these products by high performance liquid chromatography in combination with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry. In total, five new degradation products were identified of which three were detected in both freeze-dried products and two only in the freeze-dried product composed of EO-9/HP beta CD/NaHCO3. Furthermore, the purity profile of two lots of EO-9 drug substance was investigated. Five, probably synthetic intermediates were found. However, the amount of total impurities was very small for both lots of drug substance and below acceptable international limits for pharmaceutical use.
    Pharmazie 12/2008; 63(11):796-805. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) method was developed to quantify the experimental anticancer agent EO9 and its metabolite EO5a in biological matrices. A 200-microL aliquot of human/dog plasma was spiked with a mixture of deuterated internal standards EO9-d3 and EO5a-d4 and extracted with 1.25 mL of ethyl acetate. Dried extracts were reconstituted in 0.1 M ammonium acetate/methanol (7:3, v/v) and 20-microL volumes were injected onto the LC system. Separation was achieved on a 150 x 2.1 mm C18 column using an alkaline eluent (1 mM ammonium hydroxide/methanol (gradient system)). The detection was performed by a Finnigan TSQ Quantum Ultra equipped with an electrospray ionization source operated in positive mode and enhanced mass resolution capability. It demonstrated improved sensitivity with a factor 10-20 for EO9 and EO5a over a 3-decades dynamic range, with acceptable accuracy and precision, when compared with the previously described assay for EO9 and EO5a, developed by our group, using an API 2000. The assay quantifies a range from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL for EO9 and EO5a using 200-microL human plasma and dog samples. The described mass resolution method was successfully applied for the evaluation of the pharmacokinetic profile of EO9 and its metabolite EO5a in human and dog plasma.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 02/2008; 22(4):462-70. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Local administration routes have been investigated to reduce the systemic toxicity and to increase the local ef-ficacy of cytotoxic drugs. Some examples of local administration strategies are cutaneous, intraperitoneal, intrathecal and intravesical chemotherapy. When administered locally, high local drug concentrations can be achieved with increased lo-cal efficacy and, conditionally that only small amounts of drug are absorbed into the bloodstream, low systemic toxicity. Our main purpose is to make an inventory and to comment on the availability of ultrasensitive bioanalytical assays that could determine traces of the drugs that may have passed into the bloodstream, e.g. after local application, and which may lead to the systemic toxicity. We conclude that in the last years, multiple ultrasensitive assays have been designed capable to quantitatively determine very low levels of cytotoxic agents e.g. systemically reached after local administration. Most methods are based on the hyphenated liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection.
    The Open Analytical Chemistry Journal. 01/2008; 2(1).
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS assay for the quantitative determination of 5-methylindirubine (5-MI) in murine plasma is described. A 50-microL-murine plasma aliquot was spiked with an internal standard, indirubine-3-monoxime (IMO), and extracted with 1.25 mL diethyl ether. Dried extracts were reconstituted in methanol-water (8:2, v/v) and 10 microL-volumes were injected onto the HPLC system. Separation was achieved on a Gemini C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm ID, particle size 5 microm) using an alkaline eluent (10 mM ammonium hydroxide-methanol (5:95, v/v)). Detection was performed by negative ion electrospray followed by tandem mass spectrometry. The assay quantifies 5-MI in a range from 1 to 500 ng/mL using 50 microL of murine EDTA plasma samples. Validation results demonstrate that 5-MI concentrations can be accurately and precisely quantified in murine plasma. This assay is used to support pre-clinical pharmacologic studies with 5-MI.
    Journal of Chromatography B 10/2007; 856(1-2):261-6. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A bladder instillation of EO-9 (EOquin) is currently used in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Three alternative formulations were developed to improve its pharmaceutical properties and clinical acceptability. Freeze-dried products composed of EO-9, 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD), tri(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (Tris), and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) were tested. Selection of one formulation for further development was based on stability studies. These studies comprised stability of the freeze-dried products, stability after reconstitution and dilution and stability during bladder instillation in an experimental set-up. The stability study of the freeze-dried products showed that the formulation composed of EO-9/HPbetaCD/Tris (4/600/1mg/vial) was most stable. After reconstitution and dilution all products were stable for at least 8h. The product composed of EO9/HPbetaCD/NaHCO(3) (4/600/20mg/vial) was the least stable product both as freeze-dried formulation and after reconstitution and dilution. The bladder instillation simulation experiment showed that all products were stable when mixed with urine of pH 8 and unstable in urine of pH 4 and 6. The degradation products formed in urine were EO-5a and EO-9-Cl. Based on these results, the product composed of EO-9/HPbetaCD/Tris (4/600/1mg/vial) was selected for further pharmaceutical development.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 03/2007; 329(1-2):135-41. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) assay for the quantitative determination of gemcitabine (dFdC) and its metabolite 2',2'-difluorodeoxyuridine (dFdU) is presented. A 200-microL aliquot of human plasma was spiked with a mixture of internal standards, didanosine, lamivudine and fludarabine, and extracted using solid-phase extraction. Dried extracts were reconstituted in 1 mM ammonium acetate/acetonitrile (97:3, v/v) and 10-microL volumes were injected onto the HPLC system. Separation was achieved on a 150 x 2.1 mm C18 bonded phase endcapped with polar groups (Synergi Hydro-RP column) using an eluent composed of 1 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6.8)/acetonitrile (94:6, v/v). Detection was performed by positive ion electrospray ionization followed by MS/MS. The assay quantifies a range from 0.5 to 1000 ng/mL for gemcitabine and from 5 to 10,000 ng/mL for dFdU using 200 microL of human plasma sample. Validation results demonstrate that gemcitabine and dFdU concentrations can be accurately and precisely quantified in human plasma. This assay is used to support clinical pharmacologic studies with gemcitabine.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 02/2007; 21(14):2312-22. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: EO9 (apaziquone) is a novel, promising anticancer agent, which is currently being investigated for the intravesical treatment of bladder cancer. EO9 contains a highly reactive aziridine ring in its structure that limits its chemical stability in acidic aqueous solutions. The stability of the pharmaceutically formulated EO9 in human urine, including the effects of several parameters such as temperature, buffer strength and pH have been investigated. Urine extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using a TurboIonspray interface and positive-ion multiple reaction monitoring. EO9 was unstable in urine at 43 degrees C during the instillation for longer than 1 h. However, the drug was stable in human urine for 3 h at 37 degrees C. EO9 is stable in urine stabilized with TRIS buffer (pH 9.0; 5 mM) for up to three freeze/thaw cycles at -20 and -70 degrees C and 3 months of storage at -70 degrees C. The results also illustrated that with the lower pH in urine, EO9 became more unstable. Furthermore, a new degradation product of EO9 was discovered and successfully identified as EO9-Cl. The outcomes of these stability experiments will be implemented to insure proper sample handling at the clinical sites, transport, storage, and sample handling during analysis in the forthcoming preclinical studies of EO9 in superficial bladder cancer, supported by bioanalysis and pharmacokinetic monitoring.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 02/2007; 43(1):285-92. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS assay for the quantitative determination of EO9 and its metabolite EO5a is presented. A 200-microl human plasma aliquot was spiked with a mixture of deuterated internal standards EO9-d3 and EO5a-d4 and extracted with 1.25 ml ethyl acetate. Dried extracts were reconstituted in 0.1 M ammonium acetate-methanol (7 : 3, v/v) and 25 microl-volumes were injected into the HPLC system. Separation was achieved on a 150 x 2.1 mm C18 column using an alkaline eluent (1 mM ammonium hydroxide-methanol (gradient system)). Detection was performed by positive ion electrospray followed by tandem mass spectrometry. The assay quantifies a range from 5 to 2500 ng/ml for EO9 and from 10 to 2500 ng/ml EO5a using 200 microl of human plasma samples. Validation results demonstrate that EO9 and EO5a concentrations can be accurately and precisely quantified in human plasma. This assay will be used to support clinical pharmacologic studies with EO9.
    Journal of Mass Spectrometry 11/2006; 41(10):1268-76. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 2 (ABCC2) forms a natural barrier and efflux system for various (conjugates of) drugs, other xenotoxins, and endogenous compounds. To obtain insight in the pharmacological and physiological functions of Mrp2, we generated Mrp2 knockout mice, which were viable and fertile but suffered from mild hyperbilirubinemia due to impaired excretion of bilirubin monoglucuronides into bile. The mice also had an 80-fold decreased biliary glutathione excretion and a 63% reduced bile flow. Levels of Mrp3 (Abcc3) in liver and Mrp4 (Abcc4) in kidney of Mrp2-/- mice were approximately 2-fold increased. After oral administration of the food-derived carcinogens [(14)C]PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and [14C]IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) plasma values were 1.9- and 1.7-fold higher in Mrp2-/- mice versus wild-type mice, respectively, demonstrating the role of Mrp2 in restricting exposure to these compounds. At a high dose of 50 mg/kg of the drug [3H]methotrexate, the plasma area under the curve for i.v. administration was 1.8-fold higher in Mrp2-/- mice (1345+/-207 versus 734+/-81 min.microg/ml). No clear plasma concentration difference arose at low dose (1 mg/kg). Subsequently, Mdr1a/b/Mrp2 knockout mice were generated. Their biliary excretion of doxorubicin after i.v. administration (5 mg/kg) was 54-fold decreased (0.32+/-0.13 versus 17.30+/-6.59 nmol/g liver in wild type), and a role for both Mdr1a/b and Mrp2 in this process was revealed. Our results demonstrate that the Mrp2-/- mouse provides a valuable tool for studies of the impact of Mrp2 on behavior of drugs and other toxins, especially when combined with other ABC transporter knockout mice.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 08/2006; 318(1):319-27. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS assay for the determination of paclitaxel and its 3'p- and 6-alpha-hydroxy metabolites is presented. A 200 microL plasma aliquot was spiked with a 13C6-labeled paclitaxel internal standard and extracted with 1.0 mL tert-butylmethylether. Dried extracts were reconstituted in 0.1 M ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) and 25 microL volumes were injected onto the HPLC system. Separation was performed on a 150 x 2.1 mm C18 column using an alkaline eluent (10 mm ammonium hydroxide-methanol, 30:70, v/v). Detection was performed by positive ion electrospray followed by tandem mass spectrometry. The assay quantifies a range for paclitaxel from 0.25 to 1000 ng/mL and metabolites from 0.25 to 100 ng/mL using 200 microL human plasma samples. Validation results demonstrate that paclitaxel and metabolite concentrations can be accurately and precisely quantified in human plasma. This assay is now used to support clinical pharmacologic studies with paclitaxel.
    Biomedical Chromatography 02/2006; 20(1):139-48. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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