[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP). We compared the virological outcomes of (1) HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV); and (2) HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls) METHODS: This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a) two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b) a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. RESULTS: A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a) Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161); (b) Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82); and (c) Control, in which the subjects were naive to antiretroviral therapy (n=316). The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4) and Control (6.6). However, differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first-line NVP-based therapy and later began an EFV-based regimen, virological outcomes resulting from a staggered interruption of treatment (with a continuation of NRTI backbone therapy for 7 days after discontinuing NVP) did not differ from those of the patients who began an EFV-based regimen as their initial therapy (Control). However, the virological failure of Simultaneous Interruption was possibly higher than those of Control and Staggered Interruption.
AIDS Research and Therapy 01/2013; 10(1):4. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of patients have experienced treatment failure while receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly in resource-limited countries. The need remains for clinical data on protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens in these patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among HIV-1-infected patients who had failed NNRTI-based regimens, were naive to protease inhibitors (PIs), and subsequently initiated a salvage PI-based regimen between January 2004 and December 2006. The study period ended on 30 December 2007. One hundred and forty patients received a single-boosted PI +/- optimized background regimen (OBR) and 64 received double-boosted PIs. The median (IQR) duration of follow-up was 19 (13-29) months. The overall virological failure rate at 24 months was 15.2%. No statistically significant difference was detected between the two regimen groups (single-boosted PI +/- OBR 16.4% vs. double-boosted PIs 12.5%, log rank p = 0.818). At the end of the study, the median (IQR) change in CD4 cell counts for patients in the double-boosted PI group was higher than for patients in the single-boosted PI +/- OBR group [149 (53-322) vs. 105 (23-199), respectively, p = 0.012]. Patients receiving double-boosted PI regimens displayed a higher frequency of hypertriglyceridemia than those patients who received a single boosted PI +/- OBR (31% vs. 11%, respectively, p = 0.001). Boosted PI-based regimens showed acceptable virological outcomes among patients who had failed NNRTI-based ART. In the subgroup analysis, patients who received double-boosted PIs demonstrated a superior immunological response but not better virological outcomes compared to the single-boosted PI +/- OBR group.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 02/2010; 26(2):139-48. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test is a standard tool to assess in vivo cell-mediated immunity. Mantoux method using 4-5 common recalled antigens is recommended. However, not all antigens are widely available and appropriate antigens for tropical countries are not known. The objective of this study is to investigate what and how many antigens should be included in the DTH testing panel that suitable for Thailand and may be for this region. The DTH skin tests were done by Mantoux method in a double blinded fashion. Average induration size of > or = 5 mm defined as a positive test. Antigens included purified protein derivative (PPD), Candida albicans, tetanus toxoid (TT), Trichophyton mentagrophytes and hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). The negative control was normal saline. Of 95 healthy subjects, all showed DTH positive to > or = 1 antigen. The positivity to C. albicans, tetanus toxoid, PPD, T. mentagrophytes, and HBV was 92.6%, 83.2%, 82.1%, 50.5%, and 5.3%, respectively. When three antigens: PPD, TT and C. albicans were analyzed, 100% of subjects showed a positive response to > or = 1 antigen and 96.8% showed a positive response to > or = 2 antigens. When only PPD and TT were analyzed, 100% of subjects showed > or = 1 antigen positive and 68.4% showed both antigens positive. C. albicans antigen at 1:100 was associated with a high incidence of fever (2/20) and large local reaction (7/20), 1:500 was found to be the optimal concentration. PPD, TT and C. albicans are suitable to be included in a DTH skin testing in a tropical country like Thailand. However, in a setting where C. albicans extract is not available, testing with only two antigens of PPD and tetanus toxoid may be an alternative, but with a lower sensitivity.
Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology / launched by the Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand 01/2005; 24(2-3):143-52. · 0.79 Impact Factor