[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cytotoxic activities of a series of bis-aziridinylnaphthoquinone, AZ1 to AZ4, on human lung carcinoma cell lines, H460, and normal lung cells fibroblast cell line, MRC-5, and the mechanisms of H460 cells induced by AZ4 were investigated.
The MTT assay was used to determine the cell proliferation. Cell cycle was analysed by FACS. The activity of caspase 3, 8 and 9 was determined by cell-permeable fluorogenic detection system. Western blot assay was used to evaluate the regulation of cyclin B, Cdc-2, p53, p21, and the Bcl-2 protein.
AZ1 to AZ4 displayed various cytotoxicity activities against H460 and MRC-5 cells. Compared to those compounds, AZ4 was with the most effective agent among the 5 tested analogues at reducing H460 cell viability with an IC(50) value of 1.23 micromol/L; it also exhibited weak cytotoxicity against MRC-5 cells with an IC(50) value of 12.7 micromol/L. The results show that growth arrest on the G2-M phase of H460 cells induced by AZ4 for 24 h was discovered, and this might be altered with the reduced Cdc-2 protein expression of 47% at 2.0 micromol/L AZ4, but not with cyclin B protein expression. The AZ4 treated cells were then led to apoptosis after 48 h. This was associated with the activation of apoptotic enzyme caspase 3 and mediated by caspase 8, but not caspase 9 at various concentrations of AZ4 after being cultured for 48 h and 30 h, respectively. The anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) expression in H460 cells altered by 39% with downregulation, and the p53 protein by 25% with upregulation after being cultured with 2.0 micromol/L AZ4 for 48 h. In a time-dependent manner, the expression of the p53 and p21 proteins were increased to the maximum at 24 h, and then decreased at 48.
AZ4 represents a novel antitumor aziridinylnaphthoquinone with therapeutic potential against the non-small cell lung cancer cells.