K. W. Yoon

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (41)39.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The BICEP2 instrument was designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales of 1 to 5 degrees ($\ell$=40-200), near the expected peak of the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. Measuring B-modes requires dramatic improvement in sensitivity combined with exquisite control of systematics. We have built on the successful strategy of BICEP1, which achieved the most sensitive limit on B-modes at these scales. The telescope had a 26 cm aperture and cold, on-axis, refractive optics, and it observed from a three-axis mount at the South Pole. BICEP2 adopted a new detector design in which beam-defining slot antenna arrays couple to transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, all fabricated monolithically on a common substrate. BICEP2 took advantage of this design's scalable fabrication and multiplexed SQUID readout to field more detectors than BICEP1, improving mapping speed by more than a factor of ten. In this paper we report on the design and performance of the instrument and on the three-year data set. BICEP2 completed three years of observation with 500 detectors at 150 GHz. After optimization of detector and readout parameters BICEP2 achieved an instrument noise equivalent temperature of 17.0 $\mu$K sqrt(s) and the full data set reached Stokes Q and U map depths of 87.8 nK in square-degree pixels (5.3 $\mu$K arcmin) over an effective area of 390.3 square degrees within a 1000 square degree field. These are the deepest CMB polarization maps at degree angular scales.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2014; 792(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BICEP3 is a 550 mm-aperture refracting telescope for polarimetry of radiation in the cosmic microwave background at 95 GHz. It adopts the methodology of BICEP1, BICEP2 and the Keck Array experiments - it possesses sufficient resolution to search for signatures of the inflation-induced cosmic gravitational-wave background while utilizing a compact design for ease of construction and to facilitate the characterization and mitigation of systematics. However, BICEP3 represents a significant breakthrough in per-receiver sensitivity, with a focal plane area 5$\times$ larger than a BICEP2/Keck Array receiver and faster optics ($f/1.6$ vs. $f/2.4$). Large-aperture infrared-reflective metal-mesh filters and infrared-absorptive cold alumina filters and lenses were developed and implemented for its optics. The camera consists of 1280 dual-polarization pixels; each is a pair of orthogonal antenna arrays coupled to transition-edge sensor bolometers and read out by multiplexed SQUIDs. Upon deployment at the South Pole during the 2014-15 season, BICEP3 will have survey speed comparable to Keck Array 150 GHz (2013), and will significantly enhance spectral separation of primordial B-mode power from that of possible galactic dust contamination in the BICEP2 observation patch.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the design of a new polarization sensitive receiver, SPT-3G, for the 10-meter South Pole Telescope (SPT). The SPT-3G receiver will deliver a factor of ~20 improvement in mapping speed over the current receiver, SPTpol. The sensitivity of the SPT-3G receiver will enable the advance from statistical detection of B-mode polarization anisotropy power to high signal-to-noise measurements of the individual modes, i.e., maps. This will lead to precise (~0.06 eV) constraints on the sum of neutrino masses with the potential to directly address the neutrino mass hierarchy. It will allow a separation of the lensing and inflationary B-mode power spectra, improving constraints on the amplitude and shape of the primordial signal, either through SPT-3G data alone or in combination with BICEP-2/KECK, which is observing the same area of sky. The measurement of small-scale temperature anisotropy will provide new constraints on the epoch of reionization. Additional science from the SPT-3G survey will be significantly enhanced by the synergy with the ongoing optical Dark Energy Survey (DES), including: a 1% constraint on the bias of optical tracers of large-scale structure, a measurement of the differential Doppler signal from pairs of galaxy clusters that will test General Relativity on ~200 Mpc scales, and improved cosmological constraints from the abundance of clusters of galaxies.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report results from the BICEP2 experiment, a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter specifically designed to search for the signal of inflationary gravitational waves in the B-mode power spectrum around l ∼ 80. The telescope comprised a 26 cm aperture all-cold refracting optical system equipped with a focal plane of 512 antenna coupled transition edge sensor 150 GHz bolometers each with temperature sensitivity of ≈300 μK CMB ffiffi s p . BICEP2 observed from the South Pole for three seasons from 2010 to 2012. A low-foreground region of sky with an effective area of 380 square deg was observed to a depth of 87 nK deg in Stokes Q and U. In this paper we describe the observations, data reduction, maps, simulations, and results. We find an excess of B-mode power over the base lensed-ΛCDM expectation in the range 30 < l < 150, inconsistent with the null hypothesis at a significance of > 5σ. Through jackknife tests and simulations based on detailed calibration measurements we show that systematic contamination is much smaller than the observed excess. Cross correlating against WMAP 23 GHz maps we find that Galactic synchrotron makes a negligible contribution to the observed signal. We also examine a number of available models of polarized dust emission and find that at their default parameter values they predict power ∼(5–10)× smaller than the observed excess signal (with no significant cross-correlation with our maps). However, these models are not sufficiently constrained by external public data to exclude the possibility of dust emission bright enough to explain the entire excess signal. Cross correlating BICEP2 against 100 GHz maps from the BICEP1 experiment, the excess signal is confirmed with 3σ significance and its spectral index is found to be consistent with that of the CMB, disfavoring dust at 1.7σ. The observed B-mode power spectrum is well fit by a lensed-ΛCDM þ tensor theoretical model with Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. Published by the American Physical Society tensor-to-scalar ratio r ¼ 0.20 þ0.07 −0.05 , with r ¼ 0 disfavored at 7.0σ. Accounting for the contribution of foreground, dust will shift this value downward by an amount which will be better constrained with upcoming data sets.
    Physical Review Letters 06/2014; 112(24):24110185-98. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarimeters aspire to measure the faint $B$-mode signature predicted to arise from inflationary gravitational waves. They also have the potential to constrain cosmic birefringence which would produce non-zero expectation values for the CMB's $TB$ and $EB$ spectra. However, instrumental systematic effects can also cause these $TB$ and $EB$ correlations to be non-zero. In particular, an overall miscalibration of the polarization orientation of the detectors produces $TB$ and $EB$ spectra which are degenerate with isotropic cosmological birefringence, while also introducing a small but predictable bias on the $BB$ spectrum. The \bicep three-year spectra, which use our standard calibration of detector polarization angles from a dielectric sheet, are consistent with a polarization rotation of $\alpha = -2.77^\circ \pm 0.86^\circ \text{(statistical)} \pm 1.3^\circ \text{(systematic)}$. We revise the estimate of systematic error on the polarization rotation angle from the two-year analysis by comparing multiple calibration methods. We investigate the polarization rotation for the \bicep 100 GHz and 150 GHz bands separately to investigate theoretical models that produce frequency-dependent cosmic birefringence. We find no evidence in the data supporting either these models or Faraday rotation of the CMB polarization by the Milky Way galaxy's magnetic field. If we assume that there is no cosmic birefringence, we can use the $TB$ and $EB$ spectra to calibrate detector polarization orientations, thus reducing bias of the cosmological $B$-mode spectrum from leaked $E$-modes due to possible polarization orientation miscalibration. After applying this "self-calibration" process, we find that the upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio decreases slightly, from $r<0.70$ to $r<0.65$ at $95\%$ confidence.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The stability of Al-Mn transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers is studied as we vary the engineered TES transition, heat capacity, and/or coupling between the heat capacity and TES. We present thermal structure measurements of each of the 39 designs tested. The data is accurately fit by a two-body bolometer model, which allows us to extract the basic TES parameters that affect device stability. We conclude that parameters affecting device stability can be engineered for optimal device operation, and present the model parameters extracted for the different TES designs.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: BICEP1 is a millimeter-wavelength telescope designed specifically to measure the inflationary B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at degree angular scales. We present results from an analysis of the data acquired during three seasons of observations at the South Pole (2006 to 2008). This work extends the two-year result published in Chiang et al. (2010), with additional data from the third season and relaxed detector-selection criteria. This analysis also introduces a more comprehensive estimation of band-power window functions, improved likelihood estimation methods and a new technique for deprojecting monopole temperature-to-polarization leakage which reduces this class of systematic uncertainty to a negligible level. We present maps of temperature, E- and B-mode polarization, and their associated angular power spectra. The improvement in the map noise level and polarization spectra error bars are consistent with the 52% increase in integration time relative to Chiang et al. (2010). We confirm both self-consistency of the polarization data and consistency with the two-year results. We measure the angular power spectra at 21 <= l <= 335 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmology, with the first acoustic peak of the EE spectrum now detected at 15sigma. The BB spectrum remains consistent with zero. From B-modes only, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 0.03+0.27-0.23, or r < 0.70 at 95% confidence level.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Fluctuations in the intensity and polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe each contain clues about the nature of the earliest moments of time. The next generation of CMB and large-scale structure (LSS) experiments are poised to test the leading paradigm for these earliest moments---the theory of cosmic inflation---and to detect the imprints of the inflationary epoch, thereby dramatically increasing our understanding of fundamental physics and the early universe. A future CMB experiment with sufficient angular resolution and frequency coverage that surveys at least 1% of the sky to a depth of 1 uK-arcmin can deliver a constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio that will either result in a 5-sigma measurement of the energy scale of inflation or rule out all large-field inflation models, even in the presence of foregrounds and the gravitational lensing B-mode signal. LSS experiments, particularly spectroscopic surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, will complement the CMB effort by improving current constraints on running of the spectral index by up to a factor of four, improving constraints on curvature by a factor of ten, and providing non-Gaussianity constraints that are competitive with the current CMB bounds.
    Astroparticle Physics 09/2013; · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve sigma(sum m_nu) = 16 meV and sigma(N_eff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero sum m_nu, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics --- the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of N_eff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that N_eff = 3.046.
    Astroparticle Physics 09/2013; · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The design and performance of a wide bandwidth linear polarization modulator based on the Faraday effect is described. Faraday Rotation Modulators (FRMs) are solid-state polarization switches that are capable of modulation up to ~10 kHz. Six FRMs were utilized during the 2006 observing season in the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP) experiment; three FRMs were used at each of BICEP's 100 and 150 GHz frequency bands. The technology was verified through high signal-to-noise detection of Galactic polarization using two of the six FRMs during four observing runs in 2006. The features exhibit strong agreement with BICEP's measurements of the Galaxy using non-FRM pixels and with the Galactic polarization models. This marks the first detection of high signal-to-noise mm-wave celestial polarization using fast, active optical modulation. The performance of the FRMs during periods when they were not modulated was also analyzed and compared to results from BICEP's 43 pixels without FRMs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 765(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the software system used to control and operate the South Pole Telescope. The South Pole Telescope is a 10-meter millimeter-wavelength telescope designed to measure anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at arcminute angular resolution. In the austral summer of 2011/12, the SPT was equipped with a new polarization-sensitive camera, which consists of 1536 transition-edge sensor bolometers. The bolometers are read out using 36 independent digital frequency multiplexing (\dfmux) readout boards, each with its own embedded processors. These autonomous boards control and read out data from the focal plane with on-board software and firmware. An overall control software system running on a separate control computer controls the \dfmux boards, the cryostat and all other aspects of telescope operation. This control software collects and monitors data in real-time, and stores the data to disk for transfer to the United States for analysis.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: In January 2012, the 10m South Pole Telescope (SPT) was equipped with a polarization-sensitive camera, SPTpol, in order to measure the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Measurements of the polarization of the CMB at small angular scales (~several arcminutes) can detect the gravitational lensing of the CMB by large scale structure and constrain the sum of the neutrino masses. At large angular scales (~few degrees) CMB measurements can constrain the energy scale of Inflation. SPTpol is a two-color mm-wave camera that consists of 180 polarimeters at 90 GHz and 588 polarimeters at 150 GHz, with each polarimeter consisting of a dual transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers. The full complement of 150 GHz detectors consists of 7 arrays of 84 ortho-mode transducers (OMTs) that are stripline coupled to two TES detectors per OMT, developed by the TRUCE collaboration and fabricated at NIST. Each 90 GHz pixel consists of two antenna-coupled absorbers coupled to two TES detectors, developed with Argonne National Labs. The 1536 total detectors are read out with digital frequency-domain multiplexing (DfMUX). The SPTpol deployment represents the first on-sky tests of both of these detector technologies, and is one of the first deployed instruments using DfMUX readout technology. We present the details of the design, commissioning, deployment, on-sky optical characterization and detector performance of the complete SPTpol focal plane.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The SPTpol camera is a two-color, polarization-sensitive bolometer receiver, and was installed on the 10 meter South Pole Telescope in January 2012. SPTpol is designed to study the faint polarization signals in the Cosmic Microwave Background, with two primary scientific goals. One is to constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio of perturbations in the primordial plasma, and thus constrain the space of permissible inflationary models. The other is to measure the weak lensing effect of large-scale structure on CMB polarization, which can be used to constrain the sum of neutrino masses as well as other growth-related parameters. The SPTpol focal plane consists of seven 84-element monolithic arrays of 150 GHz pixels (588 total) and 180 individual 90 GHz single-pixel modules. In this paper we present the design and characterization of the 90 GHz modules.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The SPTpol camera is a dichroic polarimetric receiver at 90 and 150 GHz. Deployed in January 2012 on the South Pole Telescope (SPT), SPTpol is looking for faint polarization signals in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The camera consists of 180 individual Transition Edge Sensor (TES) polarimeters at 90 GHz and seven 84-polarimeter camera modules (a total of 588 polarimeters) at 150 GHz. We present the design, dark characterization, and in-lab optical properties of the 150 GHz camera modules. The modules consist of photolithographed arrays of TES polarimeters coupled to silicon platelet arrays of corrugated feedhorns, both of which are fabricated at NIST-Boulder. In addition to mounting hardware and RF shielding, each module also contains a set of passive readout electronics for digital frequency-domain multiplexing. A single module, therefore, is fully functional as a miniature focal plane and can be tested independently. Across the modules tested before deployment, the detectors average a critical temperature of 478 mK, normal resistance R_N of 1.2 Ohm, unloaded saturation power of 22.5 pW, (detector-only) optical efficiency of ~ 90%, and have electrothermal time constants < 1 ms in transition.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: SPTpol is a dual-frequency polarization-sensitive camera that was deployed on the 10-meter South Pole Telescope in January 2012. SPTpol will measure the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales spanning an arcminute to several degrees. The polarization sensitivity of SPTpol will enable a detection of the CMB "B-mode" polarization from the detection of the gravitational lensing of the CMB by large scale structure, and a detection or improved upper limit on a primordial signal due to inflationary gravity waves. The two measurements can be used to constrain the sum of the neutrino masses and the energy scale of inflation. These science goals can be achieved through the polarization sensitivity of the SPTpol camera and careful control of systematics. The SPTpol camera consists of 768 pixels, each containing two transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers coupled to orthogonal polarizations, and a total of 1536 bolometers. The pixels are sensitive to light in one of two frequency bands centered at 90 and 150 GHz, with 180 pixels at 90 GHz and 588 pixels at 150 GHz. The SPTpol design has several features designed to control polarization systematics, including: single-moded feedhorns with low cross-polarization, bolometer pairs well-matched to difference atmospheric signals, an improved ground shield design based on far-sidelobe measurements of the SPT, and a small beam to reduce temperature to polarization leakage. We present an overview of the SPTpol instrument design, project status, and science projections.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Between the BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments, we have deployed over 1500 dual polarized antenna coupled bolometers to map the Cosmic Microwave Background's polarization. We have been able to rapidly deploy these detectors because they are completely planar with an integrated phased-array antenna. Through our experience in these experiments, we have learned of several challenges with this technology- specifically the beam synthesis in the antenna- and in this paper we report on how we have modified our designs to mitigate these challenges. In particular, we discus differential steering errors between the polarization pairs' beam centroids due to microstrip cross talk and gradients of penetration depth in the niobium thin films of our millimeter wave circuits. We also discuss how we have suppressed side lobe response with a Gaussian taper of our antenna illumination pattern. These improvements will be used in Spider, Polar-1, and this season's retrofit of Keck Array.
    08/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We have deployed arrays of antenna-coupled TES bolometers for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimetry in the BICEP2 and Keck array experiments and will deploy similar detectors in SPIDER and Polar-1. Each pixel receives optical power centered at 146 GHz with a 20% bandwidth (−10 dB edges) through an integrated dual-polarized phased-array antenna. In past deployments, these detectors have shown offsets in the two polarizations’ beam centroids (differential ‘steering’), but we have redesigned the feed networks by strategically spacing lines and adding intentional phase delays to suppress this unwanted effect. We expect that the focal planes in this season’s deployment of Keck and in SPIDER will have detectors with less than 5′ steering, which is 0.5% of the 14.2° nominal antenna’s FWHM (i.e. without lenses). We have also redesigned the antenna-array’s illumination pattern to suppress side-lobe response in anticipation of the Polar-1 experiment, reducing spillover by a factor of 2.5.
    Journal of Low Temperature Physics 05/2012; 167(3-4). · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Upcoming experiments aim to produce high fidelity polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity, we are developing monolithic, feedhorn-coupled transition edge sensor polarimeter arrays operating at 150 GHz. We describe this focal plane architecture and the current status of this technology, focusing on single-pixel polarimeters being deployed on the Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) and an 84-pixel demonstration feedhorn array backed by four 10-pixel polarimeter arrays. The feedhorn array exhibits symmetric beams, cross-polar response <−23 dB and excellent uniformity across the array. Monolithic polarimeter arrays, including arrays of silicon feedhorns, will be used in the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) and the South Pole Telescope Polarimeter (SPTpol) and have been proposed for upcoming balloon-borne instruments.
    Journal of Low Temperature Physics 01/2012; 167(5-6). · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Silicon platelet corrugated feedhorn arrays for cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements at millimeter wavelengths (130 GHz to 170 GHz) have been developed for deployment for the polarization-sensitive upgrade to both the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACTpol) and the South Pole Telescope (SPTpol). We present fabrication developments and the first results of a prototype monolithic feedhorn array consisting of 84 horns. Measurements at room temperature show good beam quality across the needed bandwidth, return loss of <−20 dB, an insertion loss of <−0.4 dB, and cross polarization of <−23 dB. The 32 platelets were aligned to a 1σ variation of 8 μm.
    Journal of Low Temperature Physics 12/2011; 167(3-4). · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Superconducting transition edge sensors (TES) require superconducting films with transition temperatures (T<sub>c</sub>) and properties that can be tailored to the particular requirements of individual applications. We have been developing Al-Mn films with a tunable T<sub>c</sub>. The addition of Mn to Al suppresses T<sub>c</sub>, but does not significantly broaden the superconducting density of states of the Al. We can produce films with T<sub>c</sub> from below 50 mK to 1.4 K through adjustment of the Mn concentration. Since this is a bulk effect, T<sub>c</sub> is not as dependent on precise control of film thickness as in the standard bilayer approach for TESs. We have previously used Al-Mn to fabricate TES sensors for x-ray microcalorimeters targeted for read-out with time division SQUID multiplexing schemes. In this work, we explore the properties of Al-Mn in a regime well suited for frequency division multiplexing. We have also fabricated prototype Al-Mn cosmic microwave background polarimeters for the South Pole Telescope and will show initial measurements of these sensors.
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 07/2011; · 1.20 Impact Factor