[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the anthropometric factors to be considered, anatomic differences in the distal femur and intercondylar notch have been implicated as a cause of the different rates of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture between men and women; therefore, in this study our aim was to evaluate a number of morphometric measurements in the distal part of the femur. Two hundred knee MRI examinations were analyzed: 56 male right, 44 male left, 42 female right and 58 female left. Measurements of the intercondylar height (ICH), intercondylar width (ICW), medial condylar width (MCW), lateral condylar width (LCW) and epicondylar width (EW) were obtained. The notch shape index (NSI) was also calculated. Statistical analysis for comparisons was done by Student's t-test. Correlations between the parameters studied were calculated by Pearson correlation coefficients. Significant bilateral differences were not found (p > 0.05). In all measurements, males showed significantly greater values than females (p < 0.001). No difference was seen in the NSI between males and females (p > 0.05). Conversely a significant association was obtained between age and all parameters. We conclude that the results of this study may be useful for anatomic evaluation of the distal femur region prior to orthopaedic operations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the development of MRI techniques, many neuroanatomical studies of normal brain growth and atrophy have been reported. Investigations of aging effects on the brain stem and cerebellum are important, not only to understand normal aging process, but also for comparative study of the pathophysiology of degenerative brain disorders. Sex differences in gross cerebellar neuroanatomy have been observed in several studies. In this study, our purpose was to assess the sex differences and the age-related morphological changes of the brain stem and the cerebellar vermis on midsagittal MRIs. According to radiologists' reports, midsagittal MRIs of 120 normal individuals were evaluated in this study. There were 50 males and 70 females. By tracing the outline contour of the cerebellar vermis and the brain stem, both brain regions were drawn in a transparent paper, scaled for the real size and saved in the computer. Calculation of the areas of both regions was performed by utilizing NETCAD for Windows program, and the collected data were statistically analysed by using SPSS software. Students's t test was applied for gender comparisons. To determine the associations between age and both areas, Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated.Significant sex difference was found in the brain stem area favouring males (p<0.05) whereas no significant difference was recorded in the cerebellar vermis area. Non-significant age-associated decrease in brain stem and cerebellar vermis areas were found. The age-related changes in the brain stem and cerebellar vermis remains speculative, though some authors suggest a selective vulnerability of specific posterior fossa structures to the effects of aging and sex.