[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as potential cancer therapeutics; however, their clinical use is hindered by lack of effective delivery mechanisms to tumor sites. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to migrate to experimental glioma and to exert anti-tumor effects by delivering cytotoxic compounds. Here, we examined the ability of MSCs derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, placenta and umbilical cord to deliver synthetic miRNA mimics to glioma cells and glioma stem cells (GSCs). We examined the delivery of miR-124 and miR-145 mimics as glioma cells and GSCs express very low levels of these miRNAs. Using fluorescently labeled miRNA mimics and in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that all the MSCs examined delivered miR-124 and miR-145 mimics to co-cultured glioma cells and GSCs via gap junction- dependent and independent processes. The delivered miR-124 and miR-145 mimics significantly decreased the luciferase activity of their respected reporter target genes, SCP-1 and Sox2, and decreased the migration of glioma cells and the self-renewal of GSCs. Moreover, MSCs delivered Cy3-miR-124 mimic to glioma xenografts when administered intracranially. These results suggest that MSCs can deliver synthetic exogenous miRNA mimics to glioma cells and GSCs and may provide an efficient route of therapeutic miRNA delivery in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioma cells produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to induce vascularization and thereby supply the malignant tissue with oxygen and nutrients. However, little is known about the direct effects of VEGF on tumor cells. In this study, we investigate the ability of VEGF to promote proliferation and invasion of human glioma cells (U251n). Since the chemokine and its receptor, SDF-1/CXCR4, promote glioma cell proliferation and are up-regulated in human glioblastomas, we also tested the effects of VEGF on SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression. Using cell culture, the effect of VEGF on proliferation of U251n cells was measured using ELISA to detect incorporated BrdU as a marker of DNA syntheses. The effects of VEGF and SDF-1 on U251n cell invasion and proliferation were measured using inhibitors to VEGF receptor1 and receptor2, DC101 and MF1, respectively, and a CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100). SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression in U251n and U87MG cells were measured using quantitative PCR. VEGF antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-VEGF) was also used to down-regulate VEGF expression in U251n cells. VEGF significantly increased U251n cell proliferation and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were blocked by the VEGF receptor inhibitors, DC101/MF1. The CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 blocked U251n increased invasion, but not proliferation. CXCR4 and SDF-1 mRNA were up-regulated when U251n and U87MG cells were treated with VEGF. Eight micrometer VEGF antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-VEGF) down-regulated CXCR4 and SDF-1 mRNA levels in U251n cells. VEGF has a direct effect on U251n glioma cell proliferation and invasion. VEGF up-regulates SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression, and contributes to U251n cell invasion.
Cancer Letters 06/2006; 236(1):39-45. · 4.26 Impact Factor