[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation in the eye is tightly regulated by multiple mechanisms that together contribute to ocular immune privilege. Many studies have shown that it is very difficult to abrogate the immune privileged mechanism called anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID). Previously, we showed that retinal laser burn (RLB) to one eye abrogated immune privilege (ACAID) bilaterally for an extended period of time. In an effort to explain the inflammation in the nonburned eye, we postulated that neuronal signals initiated inflammation in the contralateral eye. In this study, we test the role of substance P, a neuroinflamatory peptide, in RLB-induced loss of ACAID. Histological examination of the retina with and without RLB revealed an increase of the substance P-inducible neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1-R) in the retina of first, the burned eye, and then the contralateral eye. Specific antagonists for NK1-R, given locally with Ag within 24 h, but not 3, 5, or 7 d post-RLB treatment, prevented the bilateral loss of ACAID. Substance P knockout (KO) mice retained their ability to develop ACAID post-RLB. These data support the postulate that substance P transmits early inflammatory signals from the RLB eye to the contralateral eye to induce changes to ocular immune privilege and has a central role in the bilateral loss of ACAID. The possibility is raised that blocking of the substance P pathway with NK1-R antagonists postocular trauma may prevent unwanted and perhaps extended consequences of trauma-induced inflammation in the eye.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2012; 189(3):1237-42. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1103264 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune privilege allows for the immune protection of the eye in the absence of inflammation. Very few events are capable of overcoming the immune-privileged mechanisms in the eye. In this study, we report that retinal laser burn (RLB) abrogates immune privilege in both the burned and nonburned eye. As early as 6 hours after RLB, and as late as 56 days after RLB, antigen inoculation into the anterior chamber of the burned eye failed to induce peripheral tolerance. After RLB, aqueous humor samples harvested from nontreated eyes but not from either the burned or the contralateral eye, down-regulated the expression of CD40 and up-regulated interleukin-10 mRNA in peritoneal exudate cells, and converted peritoneal exudate cells into tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Unlike F4/80(+) APCs from nontreated mice, F4/80(+) APCs from RLB mice were unable to transfer tolerance after anterior chamber inoculation of antigen into naïve mice. The increased use of lasers in both the industrial and medical fields raises the risk of RLB-associated loss of immune regulation and an increased risk of immune inflammation in the eye.
American Journal Of Pathology 02/2009; 174(2):414-22. DOI:10.2353/ajpath.2009.080766 · 4.59 Impact Factor