K. Maguire

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (64)267.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of the early, rising light curves of 18 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and the La Silla-QUEST variability survey (LSQ). We fit these early data flux using a simple power-law $(f(t) = {\alpha\times t^n})$ to determine the time of first light $({t_0})$, and hence the rise-time $({t_{rise}})$ from first light to peak luminosity, and the exponent of the power-law rise ($n$). We find a mean uncorrected rise time of $18.98 {\pm} 0.54$ days, with individual SN rise-times ranging from $15.98$ to $24.7$ days. The exponent n shows significant departures from the simple 'fireball model' of $n = 2$ (or ${f(t) \propto t^2}$) usually assumed in the literature. With a mean value of $n = 2.44 {\pm} 0.13$, our data also show significant diversity from event to event. This deviation has implications for the distribution of 56Ni throughout the SN ejecta, with a higher index suggesting a lesser degree of 56Ni mixing. The range of n found also confirms that the 56Ni distribution is not standard throughout the population of SNe Ia, in agreement with earlier work measuring such abundances through spectral modelling. We also show that the duration of the very early light curve, before the luminosity has reached half of its maximal value, does not correlate with the light curve shape or stretch used to standardise SNe Ia in cosmological applications. This has implications for the cosmological fitting of SN Ia light curves.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Public European Southern Observatory Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO) began as a public spectroscopic survey in April 2012. We describe the data reduction strategy and data products which are publicly available through the ESO archive as the Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 1 (SSDR1). PESSTO uses the New Technology Telescope with EFOSC2 and SOFI to provide optical and NIR spectroscopy and imaging. We target supernovae and optical transients brighter than 20.5mag for classification. Science targets are then selected for follow-up based on the PESSTO science goal of extending knowledge of the extremes of the supernova population. The EFOSC2 spectra cover 3345-9995A (at resolutions of 13-18 Angs) and SOFI spectra cover 0.935-2.53 micron (resolutions 23-33 Angs) along with JHK imaging. This data release contains spectra from the first year (April 2012 - 2013), consisting of all 814 EFOSC2 spectra and 95 SOFI spectra (covering 298 distinct objects), in standard ESO Phase 3 format. We estimate the accuracy of the absolute flux calibrations for EFOSC2 to be typically 15%, and the relative flux calibration accuracy to be about 5%. The PESSTO standard NIR reduction process does not yet produce high accuracy absolute spectrophotometry but the SOFI JHK imaging will improve this. Future data releases will focus on improving the automated flux calibration of the data products.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SN 2012ec is a Type IIP supernova (SN) with a progenitor detection and comprehensive photospheric-phase observational coverage. Here, we present Very Large Telescope and PESSTO observations of this SN in the nebular phase. We model the nebular [O I] 6300, 6364 lines and find their strength to suggest a progenitor main-sequence mass of 13-15 Msun. SN 2012ec is unique among hydrogen-rich SNe in showing a distinct and unblended line of stable nickel [Ni II] 7378. This line is produced by 58Ni, a nuclear burning ash whose abundance is a sensitive tracer of explosive burning conditions. Using spectral synthesis modelling, we use the relative strengths of [Ni II] 7378 and [Fe II] 7155 (the progenitor of which is 56Ni) to derive a Ni/Fe production ratio of 0.19pm0.07, which is a factor 3.5pm1.2 times the solar value. High production of stable nickel is confirmed by a strong [Ni II] 1.939 micron line. This is the third reported case of a core-collapse supernova producing a Ni/Fe ratio far above the solar value, which has implications for core-collapse explosion theory and galactic chemical evolution models.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present observational data for a peculiar supernova discovered by the OGLE-IV survey and followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects. The inferred redshift of z=0.07 implies an absolute magnitude in the rest-frame I-band of M$_{I}\sim-17.6$ mag. This places it in the luminosity range between normal Type Ia SNe and novae. Optical and near infrared spectroscopy reveal mostly Ti and Ca lines, and an unusually red color arising from strong depression of flux at rest wavelengths <5000 \AA. To date, this is the only reported SN showing Ti-dominated spectra. Our multi band and bolometric lightcurves, as well as the spectral evolution, are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of models for the pure detonation of a helium shell around a low-mass CO white dwarf and "double-detonation" models that include a secondary detonation of a CO core following a primary detonation in an overlying helium shell.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We analyse spectroscopic measurements of 122 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with z<0.09 discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory, focusing on the properties of the Si II 6355 and Ca II `near-infrared triplet' absorptions. We examine the velocities of the photospheric Si II 6355, and the velocities and strengths of the photospheric and high-velocity Ca II, in the context of the stellar mass (Mstellar) and star-formation rate (SFR) of the SN host galaxies, as well as the position of the SN within its host. We find that SNe Ia with faster Si II 6355 tend to explode in more massive galaxies, with the highest velocity events only occuring in galaxies with Mstellar > 3*10^9 solar mass. We also find some evidence that these highest velocity SNe Ia explode in the inner regions of their host galaxies, similar to the study of Wang et al. (2013), although the trend is not as significant in our data. We show that these trends are consistent with some SN Ia spectral models, if the host galaxy stellar mass is interpreted as a proxy for host galaxy metallicity. We study the strength of the high-velocity component of the Ca II near-IR absorption, and show that SNe Ia with stronger high-velocity components relative to photospheric components are hosted by galaxies with low stellar mass, blue colour, and a high sSFR. Such SNe are therefore likely to arise from the youngest progenitor systems. This argues against a pure orientation effect being responsible for high-velocity features in SN Ia spectra and, when combined with other studies, is consistent with a scenario where high-velocity features are related to an interaction between the SN ejecta and circumstellar medium (CSM) local to the SN.
    09/2014; 446(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Spectroscopic and photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) SN 2014J are presented. Spectroscopic observations were taken -8 to +10 d relative to $B$-band maximum, using FRODOSpec, a multi-purpose integral-field unit spectrograph. The observations range from 3900 \AA\ to 9000 \AA. SN 2014J is located in M82 which makes it the closest SN Ia studied in at least the last 28 years. It is a spectrosopically normal SN Ia with high velocity features. We model the spectra of SN 2014J with a Monte Carlo (MC) radiative transfer code, using the abundance tomography technique. SN 2014J is highly reddened, with a host galaxy extinction of ${E(B-V)}$=1.2 (R$_{V}$=1.38). It has a Delta m_{15}(B) of 1.08$\pm$0.03 when corrected for extinction. As SN 2014J is a normal SN Ia, the density structure of the classical W7 model was selected. The model and photometric luminosities are both consistent with $B$-band maximum occurring on JD 2456690.4$\pm$0.12. The abundance of the SN 2014J behaves like other normal SN Ia, with significant amounts of silicon (12\% by mass) and sulphur (9\% by mass) at high velocities (12300 km s$^{-1}$) and the low-velocity ejecta (v$<$\,6500 km s$^{-1}$) consists almost entirely of $^{56}$Ni.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We forecast dark energy constraints that could be obtained from a new large sample of Type Ia supernovae where those at high redshift are acquired with the Euclid space mission. We simulate a three-prong SN survey: a z<0.35 nearby sample (8000 SNe), a 0.2<z<0.95 intermediate sample (8800 SNe), and a 0.75<z<1.55 high-z sample (1700 SNe). The nearby and intermediate surveys are assumed to be conducted from the ground, while the high-z is a joint ground- and space-based survey. This latter survey, the "Dark Energy Supernova Infra-Red Experiment" (DESIRE), is designed to fit within 6 months of Euclid observing time, with a dedicated observing program. We simulate the SN events as they would be observed in rolling-search mode by the various instruments, and derive the quality of expected cosmological constraints. We account for known systematic uncertainties, in particular calibration uncertainties including their contribution through the training of the supernova model used to fit the supernovae light curves. Using conservative assumptions and a 1-D geometric Planck prior, we find that the ensemble of surveys would yield competitive constraints: a constant equation of state parameter can be constrained to sigma(w)=0.022, and a Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit of 203 is found for a two-parameter equation of state. Our simulations thus indicate that Euclid can bring a significant contribution to a purely geometrical cosmology constraint by extending a high-quality SN Hubble diagram to z~1.5. We also present other science topics enabled by the DESIRE Euclid observations
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an investigation of the optical spectra of 264 low-redshift (z < 0.2) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory, an untargeted transient survey. We focus on velocity and pseudo-equivalent width measurements of the Si II 4130, 5972, and 6355 A lines, as well those of the Ca II near-infrared (NIR) triplet, up to +5 days relative to the SN B-band maximum light. We find that a high-velocity component of the Ca II NIR triplet is needed to explain the spectrum in ~95 per cent of SNe Ia observed before -5 days, decreasing to ~80 per cent at maximum. The average velocity of the Ca II high-velocity component is ~8500 km/s higher than the photospheric component. We confirm previous results that SNe Ia around maximum light with a larger contribution from the high-velocity component relative to the photospheric component in their Ca II NIR feature have, on average, broader light curves and lower Ca II NIR photospheric velocities. We find that these relations are driven by both a stronger high-velocity component and a weaker contribution from the photospheric Ca II NIR component in broader light curve SNe Ia. We identify the presence of C II in very-early-time SN Ia spectra (before -10 days), finding that >40 per cent of SNe Ia observed at these phases show signs of unburnt material in their spectra, and that C II features are more likely to be found in SNe Ia having narrower light curves.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the results of the photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the transient SN 2007sv. The observables are similar to those of type IIn supernovae, a well-known class of objects whose ejecta interact with pre-existing circum-stellar material. The spectra show a blue continuum at early phases and prominent Balmer lines in emission, however, the absolute magnitude at the discovery of SN 2007sv (M_R = - 14.25 +/- 0.38) indicate it to be most likely a supernova impostor. This classification is also supported by the lack of evidence in the spectra of very high velocity material as expected in supernova ejecta. In addition we find no unequivocal evidence of broad lines of alpha - and/or Fe-peak elements. The comparison with the absolute light curves of other interacting objects (including type IIn supernovae) highlights the overall similarity with the prototypical impostor SN 1997bs. This supports our conclusion that SN 2007sv was not a genuine supernova, and was instead a supernova impostor, most likely similar to the major eruption of a luminous blue variable.
    06/2014; 447(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We present photospheric-phase observations of LSQ12gdj, a slowly-declining, UV-bright Type Ia supernova. Classified well before maximum light, LSQ12gdj has extinction-corrected absolute magnitude $M_B = -19.8$, and pre-maximum spectroscopic evolution similar to SN 1991T and the super-Chandrasekhar-mass SN 2007if. We use ultraviolet photometry from Swift, ground-based optical photometry, and corrections from a near-infrared photometric template to construct the bolometric (1600-23800 \AA) light curve out to 45 days past $B$-band maximum light. We estimate that LSQ12gdj produced $0.96 \pm 0.07$ $M_\odot$ of $^{56}$Ni, with an ejected mass near or slightly above the Chandrasekhar mass. As much as 27% of the flux at the earliest observed phases, and 17% at maximum light, is emitted bluewards of 3300 \AA. The absence of excess luminosity at late times, the cutoff of the spectral energy distribution bluewards of 3000 \AA, and the absence of narrow line emission and strong Na I D absorption all argue against a significant contribution from ongoing shock interaction. However, up to 10% of LSQ12gdj's luminosity near maximum light could be produced by the release of trapped radiation, including kinetic energy thermalized during a brief interaction with a compact, hydrogen-poor envelope (radius $< 10^{13}$ cm) shortly after explosion; such an envelope arises generically in double-degenerate merger scenarios.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of 82 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We determine star-formation rates, gas-phase/stellar metallicities, and stellar masses and ages of these objects. As expected, strong correlations between the SN Ia light-curve width (stretch) and the host age/mass/metallicity are found: fainter, faster-declining events tend to be hosted by older/massive/metal-rich galaxies. There is some evidence that redder SNe Ia explode in higher metallicity galaxies, but we found no relation between the SN colour and host galaxy extinction based on the Balmer decrement, suggesting that the colour variation of these SNe does not primarily arise from this source. SNe Ia in higher-mass/metallicity galaxies also appear brighter after stretch/colour corrections than their counterparts in lower mass hosts, and the stronger correlation is with gas-phase metallicity suggesting this may be the more important variable. We also compared the host stellar mass distribution to that in galaxy targeted SN surveys and the high-redshift untargeted Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). SNLS has many more low mass galaxies, while the targeted searches have fewer. This can be explained by an evolution in the galaxy stellar mass function, coupled with a SN delay-time distribution proportional to $t^{-1}$. Finally, we found no significant difference in the mass--metallicity relation of our SN Ia hosts compared to field galaxies, suggesting any metallicity effect on the SN Ia rate is small.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CBET 3687 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.
    Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams. 11/2013;
  • K. Maguire, M. Sullivan, P. Nugent
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    ABSTRACT: We report that an optical spectrum (range 490-950 nm) obtained on Nov 15.8 UT with the William Herschel Telescope, La Palma using the Auxiliary-port Camera (ACAM), confirms that iPTF13ebh (ATEL #5580) is a young Type Ia supernova. Using 'superfit' (Howell et al. 2005), the spectrum was found to be most similar to SN 1994d at -8 days. Adopting a redshift of 0.013269 for the host galaxy, NGC 890 (from NED), we estimate the Si II 6150 feature has a minimum at ~13000 km/s.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A key tracer of the elusive progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is the detection of narrow blueshifted time-varying Na I D absorption lines, interpreted as evidence of circumstellar material (CSM) surrounding the progenitor system. The origin of this material is controversial, but the simplest explanation is that it results from previous mass loss in a system containing a white dwarf and a non-degenerate companion star. We present new single-epoch intermediate-resolution spectra of 17 low-redshift SNe Ia taken with XShooter on the ESO Very Large Telescope. Combining this sample with events from the literature, we confirm an excess (~20 per cent) of SNe Ia displaying blueshifted narrow Na I D absorption features compared to non-blueshifted Na I D features. The host galaxies of SNe Ia displaying blueshifted absorption profiles are skewed towards later-type galaxies, compared to SNe Ia that show no Na I D absorption, and SNe Ia displaying blueshifted narrow Na I D absorption features have broader light curves. The strength of the Na I D absorption is stronger in SNe Ia displaying blueshifted Na I D absorption features than those without blueshifted features, and the strength of the blueshifted Na I D is correlated with the B-V colour of the SN at maximum light. This strongly suggests the absorbing material is local to the SN. In the context of the progenitor systems of SNe Ia, we discuss the significance of these findings and other recent observational evidence on the nature of SN Ia progenitors. We present a summary that suggests there are at least two distinct populations of normal, cosmologically useful SNe Ia.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 436(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery, classification, and extensive panchromatic (from radio to X-ray) follow-up observations of PTF11qcj, a supernova discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory. PTF11qcj is located at a distance of dL ~ 124 Mpc. Our observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array show that this event is radio-loud: PTF11qcj reached a radio peak luminosity comparable to that of the famous gamma-ray-burst-associated supernova 1998bw (L_{5GHz} ~ 10^{29} erg/s/Hz). PTF11qcj is also detected in X-rays with the Chandra observatory, and in the infrared band with Spitzer. Our multi-wavelength analysis probes the supernova interaction with circumstellar material. The radio observations suggest a progenitor mass-loss rate of ~10^{-4} Msun/yr x (v_w/1000 km/s), and a velocity of ~(0.3-0.5)c for the fastest moving ejecta (at ~10d after explosion). However, these estimates are derived assuming the simplest model of supernova ejecta interacting with a smooth circumstellar material characterized by radial power-law density profile, and do not account for possible inhomogeneities in the medium and asphericity of the explosion. The radio light curve shows deviations from such simple model, as well as a re-brightening at late times. The X-ray flux from PTF11qcj is compatible with the high-frequency extrapolation of the radio synchrotron emission (within the large uncertainties). An IR light echo from pre-existing dust is in agreement with our infrared data. Our analysis of pre-explosion data from the Palomar Transient Factory suggests that a precursor eruption of absolute magnitude M_r ~ -13 mag may have occurred ~ 2.5 yr prior to the supernova explosion. Based on our panchromatic follow-up campaign, we conclude that PTF11qcj fits the expectations from the explosion of a Wolf-Rayet star. Precursor eruptions may be a feature characterizing the final pre-explosion evolution of such stars.
    07/2013; 782(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery, classification, and extensive panchromatic follow-up observations of PTF11qcj, a type Ibn supernova discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory. Our observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array show that this event is the first radio-loud member of the rare Ibn class: PTF11qcj reached a radio peak luminosity comparable to that of the famous gamma-ray-burst-associated supernova 1998bw (L5GHz ~ 10^{29} erg/s/Hz). PTF11qcj is also detected in X-rays with the Chandra observatory, and in the infrared band with Spitzer. Our multi-wavelength analysis probes the supernova interaction with a Helium-rich circumstellar material. The radio observations suggest a progenitor mass-loss rate of ~ 10^{-4} Msun/yr x (v_w/1000 km/s), and a velocity of ~(0.3-0.5)c for the fastest moving ejecta (at about 10d after explosion). However, these estimates are derived assuming the simplest model of supernova ejecta interacting with a smooth circumstellar material, and could be improved via modeling accounting for inhomogeneities in the medium and asphericity of the explosion. The X-ray flux from PTF11qcj is compatible with the high-frequency extrapolation of the radio synchrotron emission (within the large uncertainties). A light echo from pre-existing dust is in agreement with our data. Our analysis of pre-explosion images from the Palomar Transient Factory suggests that a precursor eruption of M_r ~ -13 mag may have occurred ~2.5 yr prior to the supernova explosion. We conclude that PTF11qcj fits the expectations from the explosion of a Wolf-Rayet star of the WNE class. Precursor eruptions may be a common feature during the final evolution of such stars.
    07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopic observations of the nearby type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2011fe, taken on 10 epochs from -13.5 to +41 days relative to B-band maximum light, and spanning the far-ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (IR) are presented. This spectroscopic coverage makes SN 2011fe the best-studied local SN Ia to date. SN 2011fe is a typical moderately-luminous SN Ia with no evidence for dust extinction. Its near-UV spectral properties are representative of a larger sample of local events studied in Maguire et al. (2012). As a result, conclusions inferred from our detailed investigations are likely representative of those for other normal SNe Ia. The near-UV to optical spectra of SN 2011fe are modelled with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code using the technique of 'abundance tomography', providing tight constraints on the density structure and abundance stratification of the event. SN 2011fe was a relatively weak explosion, with moderate Fe-group yields. Although its density structure is close to the 'standard' SN Ia pure deflagration explosion model W7, an improved model was developed which demonstrates that the ejecta of SN 2011fe have a more pronounced high-velocity tail, typical of a detonation wave affecting the outer layers. This improved model has a lower energy than typical delayed-detonation models. The derived Fe abundance in the outermost layer is consistent with the metallicity of ~0.5 solar at the SN explosion site in M101. Importantly, the spectroscopic rise time of ~19 days is significantly longer than that measured from the early optical light curve, implying a 'dark phase' of ~1-1.5 days. Such an extension in the rise time has significant implications when deducing the properties of the white dwarf and binary system from the early photometric behaviour.
    05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical and infrared monitoring data of SN 2012hn collected by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects (PESSTO). We show that SN 2012hn has a faint peak magnitude (MR ~ -15.7) and shows no hydrogen and no clear evidence for helium in its spectral evolution. Instead, we detect prominent Ca II lines at all epochs, which relates this transient to previously described 'Ca-rich' or 'gap' transients. However, the photospheric spectra (from -3 to +32 d with respect to peak) of SN 2012hn show a series of absorption lines which are unique, and a red continuum that is likely intrinsic rather than due to extinction. Lines of Ti II and Cr II are visible. This may be a temperature effect, which could also explain the red photospheric colour. A nebular spectrum at +150d shows prominent CaII, OI, CI and possibly MgI lines which appear similar in strength to those displayed by core-collapse SNe. To add to the puzzle, SN 2012hn is located at a projected distance of 6 kpc from an E/S0 host and is not close to any obvious starforming region. Overall SN 2012hn resembles a group of faint H-poor SNe that have been discovered recently and for which a convincing and consistent physical explanation is still missing. They all appear to explode preferentially in remote locations offset from a massive host galaxy with deep limits on any dwarf host galaxies, favouring old progenitor systems. SN 2012hn adds heterogeneity to this sample of objects. We discuss potential explosion channels including He-shell detonations and double detonations of white dwarfs as well as peculiar core-collapse SNe.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN 2012fr, of which 33 were obtained before maximum light. At early times SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II 6355 line which can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity "photospheric" component. This Si II 6355 HVF fades by phase -5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of v~12,000 km/s until at least 5 weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared (IR) triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v~12,000 km/s with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as a high-velocity component beginning at v~31,000 km/s two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the "shallow silicon" and "core-normal" subclasses in the Branch et al. (2009) classification scheme, and on the border between normal and "high-velocity" SNe Ia in the Wang et al. (2009a) system. Though it is a clear member of the "low velocity gradient" (LVG; Benetii et al., 2005) group of SNe Ia and exhibits a very slow light-curve decline, it shows key dissimilarities with the overluminous SN 1991T or SN 1999aa subclasses of SNe Ia. SN 2012fr represents a well-observed SN Ia at the luminous end of the normal SN Ia distribution, and a key transitional event between nominal spectroscopic subclasses of SNe Ia.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 770(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PESSTO, the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects (see Valenti et al., ATel #4037; http://www.pessto.org ), reports the following supernova classifications. Targets were supplied by the La Silla-Quest survey (see Hadjiyska et al., ATel #3812). All observations were performed on the ESO New Technology Telescope at La Silla on 2012 December 11, using EFOSC2 and Grism 13 (3985-9315A, 18A resolution).
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 12/2012;

Publication Stats

328 Citations
267.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physics
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • Department of Physics
      Santa Barbara, CA, United States
  • 2013
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2008–2012
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • • Astrophysics Research Centre (ARC)
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom