[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that xenoestrogens, a group of agents termed endocrine disruptors, may contribute to the development of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast and endometrial cancers. We previously demonstrated that the xenoestrogen, bisphenol A (BPA), was able to induce the transformation in vitro of human breast epithelial cells. The normal-like human breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10F, formed tubules in collagen (3-D cultures), although after treatment with BPA (10-5 M and 10-6 M BPA) the cells produced less tubules (73% and 80%, respectively) and some spherical masses (27% and 20%, respectively). In the present study, expression and DNA methylation analyses were performed in these cells after exposure to BPA. These cells showed an increased expression of BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1, CtIP, RAD51 and BRCC3, all of which are genes involved in DNA repair, as well as the downregulation of PDCD5 and BCL2L11 (BIM), both of which are involved in apoptosis. Furthermore, DNA methylation analysis showed that the BPA exposure induced the hypermethylation of BCL2L11, PARD6G, FOXP1 and SFRS11, as well as the hypomethylation of NUP98 and CtIP (RBBP8). Our results indicate that normal human breast epithelial cells exposed to BPA have increased expressions of genes involved in DNA repair in order to overcome the DNA damage induced by this chemical. These results suggest that the breast tissue of women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations could be more susceptible to the effects of BPA.
International Journal of Oncology 07/2012; 41(1):369-77. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigenetic inactivation of genes by DNA hypermethylation plays an important role in carcinogenesis. An in vitro model of human breast epithelial cell transformation was used to study epigenetic changes induced by estradiol during the neoplastic process. Different stages of tumor initiation and progression are represented in this model being MCF-10F the normal stage; trMCF cells, the transformed stage; bsMCF cells, the invasive stage and, caMCF cells, the tumor stage. Global methylation studies by restriction landmark genomic scanning (RLGS) showed an increased DNA methylation during the in the invasive and tumor stages. Expression studies showed that NRG1 (neuregulin 1), CSS3 (chondroitin sulfate synthase 3) and SNIP (SNAP-25-interacting protein) were downregulated in the invasive and tumor cells. The transformed cells showed low expression of STXBP6 (amysin) compared to the parental cells MCF-10F. The treatment of these cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-dC alone or in combination with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin increased the expression of NRG1, STXBP6, CSS3 and SNIP confirming that DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of the expression of these genes. The NRG1 exon 1 has a region located between -136 and +79 (considering +1, the translational initiation site) rich in CpG sites that was analyzed by methylation specific PCR (MSP). NRG1 exon 1 showed progressive changes in the methylation pattern associated with the progression of the neoplastic process in this model; NRG1 exon 1 was unmethylated in MCF-10F and trMCF cells, becoming hypermethylated in the invasive (bsMCF) and tumor (caMCF) stages. Studies of human breast tissue samples showed that NRG1 exon 1 was partially methylated in 14 out of 17 (82.4%) invasive carcinomas although it was unmethylated in normal tissues (8 out of 10 normal breast tissue samples). Furthermore, NRG1 exon 1 was partially methylated in 9 out of 14 (64.3%) morphologically normal tissue samples adjacent to invasive carcinomas.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 02/2010; 688(1-2):28-35. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is evidence that in the human breast there is a stem cell population that can give rise to many different cell types and have the unique potential to divide asymmetrically. In this way stem cells maintain the stem cell pool and simultaneously generate committed cells that reconstitute the organ for example for preparing the breast for a new pregnancy after the involution from a previous pregnancy and lactation process. In addition to the in vivo models of mammary morphogenesis there are in vitro systems that are more amenable to study in critically determined conditions the ductulogenic pattern of growth of the breast epithelia. Primary mammary epithelial cells grown in collagen matrix are able to form tree-like structures resembling in vivo ductulogenesis. The human breast epithelial cells MCF-10F formed tubules when grown in type I collagen and we demonstrated that treatment of these cells with 17β-estradiol (E(2)) induces phonotypical changes indicative of neoplastic transformation. The transformation of MCF-10F by E(2) is associated with impaired ductal morphogenesis by altering the stem cells unique potential to divide asymmetrically inducing formation of solid masses mimicking intraductal carcinoma that progress to invasive and tumorigenic phenotype. In the present work we present evidence for the mechanism of cell asymmetry leading to normal ductulogenesis and how the normal stem cell is transformed to cancer stem cell by altering this process. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the carcinogenic agent, in this case E(2), induces a defect in the asymmetric cell division program of the normal mammary stem cell.
Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation 01/2010; 1(2):53-65.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy, can elicit life-long refractoriness to carcinogenesis by differentiation of the breast epithelium. Human breast epithelial cells MCF-10F form tubules in collagen, mimicking the normal ductules. We have shown that 17 β-estradiol (E2) alter the ductulogenic pattern of these cells. The effect of the recombinant hCG (rhCG) in vitro was evaluated on the transformation of MCF-10F induced by E2. MCF-10F cells were treated with 70 nM E2 alone or in combination with 50 IU/ml rhCG during 2 weeks, while the controls were treated with DMSO (the solvent in which E2 was dissolved) or rhCG alone. At the end of treatment, the cells were plated in type I collagen matrix (3D-cultures) for detecting 2 main phenotypes of cell transformation, namely the loss of ductulogenic capacity and the formation of solid masses. Although E2 significantly increased solid mass formation, this effect was prevented when MCF-10F cells were treated with E2 in combination with rhCG. Furthermore, E2 increased the main duct width (p < 0.001), and caused a disruption of the luminal architecture, whereas rhCG increased the length of the tubules (p < 0.001) and produced tertiary branching. In conclusion, rhCG was able to abrogate the transforming abilities of estradiol, and had the differentiating property by increasing the branching of the tubules formed by breast epithelial cells in collagen. These results further support our hypothesis, known as the terminal differentiation hypothesis of breast cancer prevention, that predicts that hCG treatment results in protection from tumorigenic changes by the loss of susceptible stem cells 1 through a differentiation to refractory stem cells 2 and increase differentiation of the mammary gland.