[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children with Artemis-deficient T(-)B(-)NK(+) severe combined immunodeficiency are at high risk for graft rejection from natural killer (NK) cells and toxicity from increased sensitivity to the alkylating agents used in mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We evaluated the use of a nonalkylating agent regimen before HSCT in Artemis-deficient (mArt(-/-)) C57Bl/6 (B6) mice to open marrow niches and achieve long-term multilineage engraftment with full T cell and B cell immune reconstitution. We found that partial depletion of both recipient NK cells using anti-NK1.1 monoclonal antibody and donor T cells sensitized to recipient splenocytes was necessary. BALB/c-sensitized T cells (STCs) were photochemically treated (PCT) with psoralen and UVA light to inhibit proliferation, reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and target host hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). A dose of 4 × 10(5) PCT STCs coinjected with 1 × 10(5) lineage-depleted c-kit(+) BALB/c HSCs resulted in 43.9% ± 3.3% CD4(+) and 10.9% ± 1.2% CD8(+) donor T cells in blood, 29% ± 7.8% and 21.7% ± 4.0 donor B220(+) IgM(+) in spleen and bone marrow, and 15.0% ± 3.6% donor Gran-1(+) cells in bone marrow at 6 months post-HSCT versus 0.02% ± 0.01%, 0.13% ± 0.10%, 0.53% ± 0.16%, 0.49% ± 0.09%, and 0.20% ± 0.06%, respectively, in controls who did not receive PCT STCs. We found that STCs target host HSCs and that PCT STCs are detectable only up to 24 hours after infusion, in contrast to non-photochemically treated STCs, which proliferate resulting in fatal GVHD. Increased mortality in the groups receiving 4-6 × 10(5) PCT STCs was associated with evidence of GVHD, particularly in the recipients of 6 × 10(5) cells. These results demonstrate that blocking NK cell-mediated resistance and making niches in bone marrow are both essential to achieving multilineage engraftment of mismatched donor cells and T cell and B cell reconstitution, even though GVHD is not completely eliminated.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 02/2012; 18(2):200-9. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two Artemis-deficient (mArt(-/-)) mouse models, generated independently on 129/SvJ backgrounds, have the expected T(-)B(-)NK(+) severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) phenotype but fail to mimic the human disease because of CD4(+) T cell leakiness. Moreover, immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is achieved more readily in these leaky mouse models than in Artemis-deficient humans. To develop a more clinically relevant animal model, we backcrossed the mArt(-/-) mutation onto the C57Bl/6 (B6) background (99.9%), which resulted in virtually no CD4(+) T cell leakiness compared with 129/SvJ mArt(+/-) mice (0.3% +/- 0.25% vs 19.5% +/- 15.1%, P < .001). The nonleaky mouse also was uniquely resistant to engraftment using allogeneic mismatched hematopoietic stem cells, comparable to what is seen in human Artemis deficiency. The genetic background also influenced Artemis-associated radiation sensitivity, with differing degrees of x-ray hypersensitivity evident in 129/SvJ and B6 backgrounds with both the mArt(-/-) and mArt(+/-) genotypes. Our results indicate that immunogenic and DNA repair phenotypes associated with Artemis deficiency are significantly altered by genetic background, which has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of SCID. Moreover, the B6 mArt(-/-) mouse provides a more accurate model for the human disease and a more appropriate system for studying human Artemis deficiency and for developing improved transplantation and gene therapy regimens for the treatment of children with SCID.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 02/2009; 15(1):1-11. · 3.15 Impact Factor