Kamilla Nawrot-Wawrzyniak

Hanusch Krankenhaus, Wien, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (12)44.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop renal osteodystrophy with alterations in bone turnover, mineralization, and volume (TMV). A specific skeletal complication in children is growth impairment, which currently is treated by recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). The effects on bone material properties are poorly understood. This study assesses the effects of rhGH treatment on bone matrix mineralization. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 18 short children and adolescents (aged 3.6-16 years) with CKD on dialysis therapy. PREDICTOR: rhGH treatment for 1 year. OUTCOMES: Tetracycline-labeled bone biopsy classified according to the TMV system. MEASUREMENTS: Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) was evaluated by quantitative backscattered electron imaging in trabecular and cortical compartments. Additional data for patients' height and biochemical bone serum parameters were obtained. RESULTS: Prior to rhGH treatment, our cohort showed low bone turnover and high mineralization densities versus reference data: Camean (weighted mean calcium content) in cancellous bone, +3.3% (P = 0.04); Camean in cortical bone, +6.7% (P < 0.001); Capeak (mode of the BMDD) in cancellous bone, +5.0% (P < 0.001); Capeak in cortical bone, +8.2% (P < 0.001); Cawidth (heterogeneity in mineralization), no significant difference for cancellous (P = 0.2) and cortical (P = 0.1) bone; Cahigh (portion of fully mineralized bone) in cancellous bone, 5-fold greater (P < 0.001); Cahigh in cortical bone, 14-fold greater (P < 0.001); Calow (portion of low mineralized bone) in cancellous bone, +23.9% (P = 0.02); Calow in cortical bone, -22.2% (P = 0.05). After rhGH treatment, height increased by 9.1 cm (P < 0.001) and bone turnover indices to normal values or beyond. Matrix mineralization was lesser and more heterogeneous compared to baseline: Cawidth for cancellous bone, +15.3% (P < 0.001); Cawidth for cortical bone, +34.1% (P < 0.001). Camean, Capeak, and Cahigh for cancellous bone and Camean and Capeak for cortical bone were no longer significantly different from reference data. Cahigh for cortical bone dramatically decreased after treatment but was still substantially greater than reference data. LIMITATIONS: Low case number per TMV subgroup, no measurements of fibroblast growth factor 23. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with CKD and growth deficiency are at risk of having low bone turnover. rhGH treatment improves height and concomitantly bone modeling/remodeling, which appears beneficial for bone matrix mineralization.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 02/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Bone 12/2012; 51(6):S7–S8. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known whether trabecular bone matrix mineralization is altered at the site of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) was assessed in trabecular bone of acute, single-level compression fractures of the spine at various stages of fracture repair using quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI). The grading of the repair stage was performed by histological methods. From 20 patients, who underwent either kyphoplasty (n=18) or vertebroplasty (n=2), a vertebral bone biopsy was taken prior to cement augmentation. Six patients took bisphosphonates (BP) prior to fracture. Three study groups were formed: N1=early-, N2=late-healing and B=BP treatment at late healing stage. In general, all groups had an altered BMDD when compared to historical normative reference data. Mean matrix mineralization (CaMean) was significantly (p<0.001) lower in all groups (N1: -5%, N2: -16%, and B2: -16%). In N2, CaMean was -13.1% (p<0.001) lower than N1. At this stage, deposition of new bone matrix and/or formation of woven bone are seen, which also explains the more heterogeneous matrix mineralization (CaWidth). Moreover, BP treatment (B2) led to a significant reduction in CaWidth (-28.5%, p<0.001), when compared to N2. Bone tissue from vertebrae with acute compression fractures reveals a large variation in matrix mineralization depending on the stage of repair. Bisphosphonate treatment does affect the mineralization pattern of tissue repair. The low mineralization values found in early stage of repair suggest that altered bone material properties may play a role in the occurrence of fragility fractures of the spine.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Research 01/2012; 30(7):1089-94. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of primary osteoporosis in younger individuals is still elusive. An important determinant of the biomechanical competence of bone is its material quality. In this retrospective study we evaluated bone material quality based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging to assess bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in bone biopsies of 25 male patients (aged 18-61 years) who sustained fragility fractures but were otherwise healthy. BMDD of cancellous bone was compared with previously established adult reference data. Complementary information was obtained by bone histomorphometry. The histomorphometric results showed a paucity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the bone surface in the majority of patients. BMDD revealed a significant shift to lower mineralization densities for cancellous bone values: CaMean (weighted mean Ca content, -5.9%), CaPeak (mode of the BMDD, -5.6%), and CaHigh (portion of fully mineralized bone, -76.8%) were decreased compared to normative reference; CaWidth (heterogeneity in mineralization, +18.5%) and CaLow (portion of low mineralized bone, +68.8; all P < 0.001) were significantly increased. The shift toward lower mineral content in the bone matrix in combination with reduced indices of bone formation and bone resorption suggests an inherent mineralization defect leading to undermineralized bone matrix, which might contribute to the susceptibility to fragility fractures of the patients. The alteration in bone material might be related to osteoblastic dysfunction and seems fundamentally different from that in high bone turnover osteoporosis with a negative bone balance.
    Calcified Tissue International 02/2011; 88(5):378-87. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Bone 01/2011; 48. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a common X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the coding region of methyl-CpG-binding 2 (MECP2) gene. Patients with RTT have a low bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture. However, very little is known if bone matrix mineralization is altered in RTT. A 17-year-old girl with a classical form of RTT with a heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 3 in the MECP2-gene was treated in our hospital. Her femoral neck BMD is 43.3% below the 3rd percentile when compared to age and sex-matched controls. She underwent surgery for correction of her scoliosis, which provided a unique opportunity to obtain bone tissue to study bone matrix mineralization (Bone Mineralization Density Distribution-BMDD) using quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and histomorphometry. BMDD outcomes were compared to recently published normative reference data for young individuals. qBEI analysis showed a significant shift to lower matrix mineralization despite histomorphometric indices indicate a low bone turnover. There was a reduction in CaMean (-7.92%) and CaPeak (-3.97%), which describe the degree of mineralization. Furthermore the fraction of low mineralized matrix (CaLow: +261.84%) was dramatically increased, which was accompanied with an increase in the heterogeneity of mineralization (CaWidth: +86.34%). Our findings show a significantly altered bone matrix mineralization of a typical patient with RTT. This may partly explain the low bone density seen in these patients. These results also warrant further studies on the molecular role of MECP2 in bone matrix mineralization.
    Bone 09/2010; 47(3):701-5. · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Bone 06/2010; 47. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a tall-statured 14-year-old boy who illustrated the full phenotypic and radiographic features of Stickler syndrome type I. A bone biopsy showed evidence of reduced bone mass and bone turnover, such as reduced BV/TV (-43%), TbTh (-29%), and OS/BS (-48%), Ob.S/BS (-27%), and Oc/BS (-47%) compared to "age-matched" controls. Moreover, there was evidence that the mineralization process was severely disturbed. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging revealed that the bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) of cancellous (Cn) as well as cortical (Ct) bone was shifted toward lower mineralization compared to a young control reference cohort. BMDD parameters of mean degree of mineralization, Cn Ca (-9.8%) and Ct Ca (-18.0%), were dramatically decreased. To the best of our knowledge this is the first clinical report describing bone biopsy findings in a boy with Stickler syndrome. Such a severe undermineralization of bone matrix might essentially contribute to the compromised mechanical competence of the skeleton found in this patient.
    Calcified Tissue International 12/2009; 86(2):126-31. · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Bone 07/2009; 45. · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Bone 06/2009; 44. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) overexpression has been identified as a causative factor for tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) characterized by hypophosphatemia due to increased renal phosphate wasting, low 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) serum levels, and low bone density. The effects of long-lasting disturbed phosphate homeostasis on bone mineralization are still not well understood. We report on a patient with a 12-year history of TIO, treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and phosphate, who finally developed hyperparathyroidism with gland hyperplasia before the tumor could be localized in the scapula and removed. During surgery a transiliac bone biopsy was obtained. FGF23 expression in the tumor cells was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Serum FGF23 levels as measured by ELISA were found to be extremely elevated before and decreased after removal of the tumor. Bone histology/histomorphometry and measurement of bone mineralization density distribution using quantitative backscattered electron imaging were performed on the bone biopsy. The data showed important surface osteoidosis and a slightly increased osteoblast but markedly decreased osteoclast number. The mineralized bone volume (-11%) and mineralized trabecular thickness (-18%) were low. The mean degree of mineralization of the bone matrix (-7%), the most frequent calcium concentration (-4.1%), and the amounts of fully mineralized bone (-40.3%) were distinctly decreased, while the heterogeneity of mineralization (+44.5%) and the areas of primary mineralization (+131.6%) were dramatically increased. We suggest that the elevated levels of FGF23 and/or low phosphate concentrations disturb the mineralization kinetics in vivo without affecting matrix mineralization of pre-existing bone packets.
    Calcified Tissue International 03/2009; 84(4):313-23. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most prevalent heritable form of rickets. It is a dominantly inherited disorder, characterized by renal phosphate wasting, abnormal vitamin D and PTH metabolism, and defective bone mineralization. Inactivating mutations in the gene encoding PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome) have been found to be associated with XLH. We report about a 54-year-old male patient who exhibited the typical features of XLH, and in whom mutational analysis using PCR and sequencing was performed. Additionally, extensive laboratory and radiological investigations were carried out. A 1-bp deletion in exon 2 of the PHEX gene was detected (177delC), which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet. This deletion results in a premature stop codon (C59X), suggesting a truncation of the PHEX protein. Furthermore, elevated FGF23 and PTH levels as well as an increased axial bone mineral density score were measured. We present a male patient with XLH, who harbors a novel mutation in the PHEX gene, which might be the cause for his disease. Our data support previous findings and therefore contribute to the decipherment of the pathogenetic pathways of XLH.
    Nephron Physiology 02/2007; 106(1):p8-12. · 1.57 Impact Factor