[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected at the atlanto-occipital site and serum were obtained from 10 male, 8-week-old, Holstein calves after sedation with xylazine hydrochloride. Glucose, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and albumin were determined in serum and CSF. Optical characteristics, specific gravity, total red blood cell and nucleated cell counts and differentials were also evaluated in the CSF. Additionally, CSF protein electrophoresis and immunoglobulin concentrations were determined. Then, albumin quotients (AQ) were derived. Erythrocytes were observed in 9 of 10 CSF samples. Total nucleated cell counts ranged from 0-10 cells x 10(6)/L with a mean of 3 cells x 10(6)/L. Differential nucleated cell count in the CSF consisted primarily of lymphocytes/small mononuclear cells (57%), fewer monocytes/ large mononuclear cells (38%), and scant neutrophils (4%) and eosinophils (0.05%). The concentration of sodium (134 to 139 mEq/L) was similar to that of serum, but the concentration of potassium (2.8 to 3 mEq/L) was lower than that of serum. Creatine kinase activity (0 to 4 U/L) of CSF was markedly lower than serum activity. The CSF glucose concentration was approximately 80% of the serum value. Cerebrospinal fluid total protein concentration determined by electrophoresis ranged from 110 to 330 mg/L with a mean of 159 mg/L. Cerebrospinal fluid albumin ranged from 48 to 209 mg/L with a mean of 86 mg/L. In all CSF samples, radial immunodiffusion of unaltered CSF and concentrated CSF (four-fold concentration) revealed quantities undetectable by the present techniques in which the lowest standard values for IgG1, IgG, and IgM determinations was 70 mg/L and IgG2 was 30 mg/L. The albumin quotient ranged from 0.15 to 0.65 with a mean of 0.25. Based on the results of this study, CSF may be collected at the atlanto-occipital site safely and efficiently in calves, and reported values for CSF from adult cattle may not be suitable for evaluation of CSF collected from immature cattle.
Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire 05/1997; 61(2):108-12. · 1.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of a porous bovine-derived collagen membrane (PBCM) on the rates of wound healing, cellular events, presence of granulation tissue, and appearance at termination of the study in surgically created full-thickness cutaneous wounds of the distal portion of the extremities of horses.
Treated wounds (n = 12) received a PBCM dressing and control wounds were covered with a nonadherent dressing. Forelimbs and hind limbs were cross paired; the right forelimb and left hind limb always received the same dressing application, as did the left forelimb and right hind limb. Limbs pairs were then randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 dressings.
Six healthy male horses (3 sexually intact, 3 geldings) ranging from 2 to 10 (mean, 6.5) years and weighing between 278 and 568 (mean, 408.5) kg were studied.
Full-thickness skin wounds (6.25 cm2) were created on the dorsal metatarsi and metacarpi of the experimental animals. A preformed PBCM dressing was evaluated in half the wounds (n = 12). Control wounds (n = 12) were dressed with a nonadherent gauze dressing. At each bandage change, wounds were subjectively assessed and were photographed, and measurements of horizontal and vertical wound dimensions were documented. Wound biopsy specimens obtained on days 2, 5, 7, 10, 21, and 31 were evaluated for presence of collagen, fibrin, inflammation, epithelium, and cellular elements of healing. Planar morphometry was used to determine total wound area and granulation area from the wound photographs. Percentage of contraction and epithelialization were calculated from these values. Linear regression analysis of the square root of the total wound area and the granulation area was performed. Wound area measurements were analyzed, using ANOVA for repeated measures. Regressions were compared, using covariance analysis and ANOVA. Significance was considered at P < 0.05.
Fibrin score, neutrophil score, and degree of inflammation were significantly greater in the PBCM-treated wounds. No significant differences in the total wound, epithelialized, or contraction areas were detected between the PBCM-treated and control (nonadherent-treated) wounds. Rates of wound healing were not statistically different between the 2 treatment groups, though they were significantly slower in the hind limbs, compared with the forelimbs. Scabs were formed more frequently in the PBCM-treated wounds.
Application of a porous collagen bandage was not detrimental to full-thickness cutaneous wound healing in horses.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 12/1995; 56(12):1663-7. · 1.35 Impact Factor