Publications (2)5.86 Total impact
Article: HPLC-accelerator MS measurement of atrazine metabolites in human urine after dermal exposure.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Metabolites of atrazine were measured in human urine after dermal exposure using HPLC to separate and identify metabolites and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify them. Ring-labeled [14C]atrazine was applied for 24 h with a dermal patch to human volunteers at low (0.167 mg, 6.45 muCi) and high (1.98 mg, 24.7 muCi) doses. Urine was collected for 7 days. The urine was centrifuged to remove solids, and the supernatant was measured by liquid scintillation counting prior to injection on the HPLC to ensure that < 0.17 Bq (4.5 pCi) was injected on the column. A reversed-phase gradient of 0.1% acetic acid in water and 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile became less polar with increasing time and separated the parent compound and major atrazine metabolites over 31 min on an octadecylsilane column. Peaks were identified by coelution with known standards. Elution fractions were collected in 1-min increments; half of each fraction was analyzed by AMS to obtain limits of quantitation of 14 amol. Mercapturate metabolites of atrazine and dealkylated atrazine dominated the early metabolic time points, accounting for approximately 90% of the 14C in the urine. No parent compound was detected. The excreted atrazine metabolites became more polar with increasing time, and an unidentified polar metabolite that was present in all samples became as prevalent as any of the known ring metabolites several days after the dose was delivered. Knowledge of metabolite dynamics is crucial to developing useful assays for monitoring atrazine exposure in agricultural workers.Analytical Chemistry 08/1999; 71(16):3519-25. · 5.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose- (concentration) dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 muCi) of (14)C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2 D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 hr post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with (14)C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B. 268(7-8):1324-1327.