Kulnasan Saikhun

Mahidol University, Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand

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Publications (12)16.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The effects of Equex STM paste (Equex) and oxytocin (OT) on the in vitro quality of frozen-thawed Asian elephant sperm were investigated in the study. The viability of frozen-thawed sperm was significantly higher in the Equex-treated (1 and 2%) groups than in the control group. There were no differences in the examined sperm parameters among the control and OT-treated (0.05-5IU) groups.
    Reproductive biology 06/2013; 13(2):169-171. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI) are potentially valuable methods for supporting the breeding management of endangered species like the Asian elephant. Cryopreservation of Asian elephant semen has however proven problematic with respect to maintenance of both adequate semen quality and fertility post-thaw. In this study, nine ejaculates from three adult bulls were used to compare the influence of extender (TEST versus INRA96(®)) and penetrating cryoprotectants (3% glycerol, 5% glycerol and 4% methylformamide) on post-thaw semen quality. We demonstrate that not only the freezing process, but also the quality of the semen before freezing, significantly influences the freezability of Asian elephant semen. Pre-freeze motility, viability, semen volume, semen pH, sperm concentration and the incidence of sperm mid-piece and tail abnormalities all significantly (p<0.05) affected post-thaw semen quality. While extender and cryoprotectant did not significantly affect any of the above semen quality parameters post-thaw, the skim-milk based extender (INRA96(®)) preserved DNA integrity better (p<0.05) than the egg yolk extender (TEST). Considerable between-ejaculate variation in all post-thaw semen quality parameters was also noted. It is concluded that strict criteria for semen quality is essential for the selection of Asian elephant bull ejaculates suitable for cryopreservation; stricter initial selection should improve the mean post-thaw quality.
    Cryobiology 11/2012; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was examined whether the species of felid affects synchronization accuracy at the G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle and the occurrence of apoptosis by different protocols, such as serum starvation, confluent and roscovitine treatment. Skin fibroblast cells were obtained from the Asian golden cat, marbled cat, leopard and Siamese cat. The cells from each animal were treated with either serum starvation for 1-5 days, cell confluency-contact inhibition for 5 days or roscovitine at various concentrations (7.5-30 μm). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that serum starvation for 3 days provided the highest cell population arrested at the G0/G1 stage, irrespective of the felid species. In all species, 100% confluency gave a significantly higher percentage of cells arrested at the G0/G1 stage compared with the non-treated control cells. The effects of roscovitine treatment and the appropriate concentration on the rates of G0/G1 cells differed among the felid species. Serum starvation for more than 4 days in the marbled cat and Siamese cat and roscovitine treatment with 30 μm in the Asian golden cat and leopard increased the rates of apoptosis. In conclusion, different felid species responded to different methods of cell cycle synchronization. Asian golden cat and Siamese cat fibroblast cells were successfully synchronized to G0/G1 stage using the serum starvation and roscovitine treatment, whereas only confluency-contact inhibition treatment induced cell synchronization in the leopard. Moreover, these three methods did not successfully induce cell synchronization of the marbled cat. These findings may be valuable for preparing their donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer in the future.
    Reproduction in Domestic Animals 07/2012; · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between deficiencies of early components in the classical complement pathway and the development of SLE. Forty inbred C57BL/6J mice and 40 knockout C4 complement gene (C4KO) mice, which included 10 mice in each age group (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) were used. The enumeration of CD4+CD25+ Tregs frequencies in bone marrow, spleen and peripheral blood from both normal and C4KO groups were performed by flow cytometry. The expression levels of Foxp3 and TGF-beta in the same tested tissues were measured using real time PCR. The antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were semi-quantitatively measured using ELISA. We report decreased frequencies of CD4+CD25+ Tregs and reduced expression levels of Foxp3 and TGF-beta, which efficiently program the development and function of Tregs, in lymphoid tissues and peripheral blood of C4KO mice. In this study, C4KO mice have higher titers of ANA than those of normal mice. Higher frequencies of mice positive for ANA are also found in older mice. The deficiency of the C4 gene induces the decreased numbers of Tregs that further increase the production of ANA resulting in the development of an autoimmune disorder. The outcomes of our study help us to understand the association between the deficiency of C4 in the classical complement pathway and development of autoimmune disorder via the role of Tregs.
    Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology / launched by the Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand 09/2011; 29(3):220-8. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives were to identify and quantify changes occurring in cat sperm as they pass through the epididymis, vas deferens and ejaculate. Cat epididymides obtained by orchidectomy were divided into six regions (1 to 6) and sperm cells were released by mincing each epididymal region. The semen quality was assessed by light microscopy and the sperm chromatin condensation was measured by flow cytometry. The sperm motility was minimal in region 1 and increased significantly (p < 0.05) when the sperm passed from this region, with maximum motility reached in region 6, the vas deferens and ejaculate. Progressive motility and the percentage of sperm with normal morphology increased during epididymal transit. The most prevalent defects in abnormal spermatozoa were found in the tail. The mean degree of maturation (± standard error of the mean) of sperm chromatin condensation was 72.9 ± 9.4% in region 1 and was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in region 3 (94.4 ± 2.6%). Chromatin condensation or decondensation processes were studied further in cat epididymides (four portions: initial segment, caput, corpus and cauda) by incubating sperm with alkaline phosphatase (AP) or dithiothreitol (DTT), respectively, followed by staining with propidium iodide and analysis by flow cytometry. After AP treatment, the fluorescence intensity approximated that found in the initial segment. The DTT treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the fluorescence of the chromatin condensation in all parts, except the initial segment. Cat sperm chromatin was shown to undergo condensation during passage through the epididymis and the condensation process was reversed by reducing disulfide to sulfhydryl bonds or promoted by dephosphorylation.
    Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science 01/2011; 45:46-58.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of embryo cryopreservation for four transgenic (TG) thalassaemic mouse strains, which is a key element of the ongoing gene banking efforts for these high-value animals. Heterozygous TG embryos were produced by breeding four lines of TG males to wild-type (WT) females (C57BL/6J). Intact two-cell embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification in straws using 35% ethylene glycol. Survival rates of cryopreserved embryos ranged between 91.1% (102/112) and 93.6% (176/188) without significant differences between the lines. In contrast, the paternal line had a significant effect on the development of these embryos to the blastocyst stage, which ranged from 50.6% (92/182) to 77.5% (79/102). This effect was also noted following embryo transfers, with implantation rates varying from 17.3% (19/110) to 78.1% (35/45). The results demonstrate that the in vivo developmental potential is significantly influenced by TG line and reveal a specific line effect on cryosurvival. All bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic fetuses developed from vitrified-warmed embryos showed expression of the human beta-globin transgene. In conclusion, the present study shows a strong TG line effect on developmental competence following cryopreservation and the vitrification method was successful to bank the human beta-globin TG-expressing mouse strains.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 01/2010; 22(5):788-95. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryopreservation of oocytes, which is an interesting procedure to conserve female gametes, is an essential part of reproductive biotechnology. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of vitrification on nuclear maturation, ultrastructural changes and gene expression of canine oocytes. Immature oocytes (germinal vesicles) isolated from ovaries of normal bitches (> 6 months of age) were either vitrified in open pulled straw (OPS) using 20% ethylene glycol (EG) and 20% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as vitrification solution or exposed to vitrification solution without subjected to liquid nitrogen. After warming, oocytes were investigated for nuclear maturation following in vitro maturation (IVM), ultrastructural changes using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and gene expression using RT-PCR. Fresh immature oocytes were used as the control group. The rate of resumption of meiosis in vitrified-warmed oocytes (53.4%) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of control (93.8%) and exposure (91.4%) groups. However, there were no statistically significant differences among groups in the rates of GV oocytes reaching the maturation stage (metaphase II, MII). The ultrastructural alterations revealed by TEM showed that cortical granules, mitochondria, lipid droplets and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) were affected by vitrification procedures. RT-PCR analysis for gene expression revealed no differences in HSP70, Dnmt1, SOD1 and BAX genes among groups, whereas Bcl2 was strongly expressed in vitrified-warmed group when compared to the control. Immature canine oocytes were successfully cryopreserved, resumed meiosis and developed to the MII stage. The information obtained in this study is crucial for the development of an effective method to cryopreserve canine oocytes for establishment of genetic banks of endangered canid species.
    Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 01/2010; 8:70. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge about the acrosomal status of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) sperm is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability and acrosomal status of Asian elephant sperm following induction by calcium ionophore and heparin using propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA). Semen samples were collected from elephant bulls by manual stimulation. Semen was diluted with extender, cooled to 4 degrees C and transported to a laboratory for the experiment. Sperm cells were incubated in modified Tyrode's medium containing either 1 mM calcium ionophore or 10 mg/ml heparin for 5 h at 39 degrees C. Sperm recovered at the onset (0 h), 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h of incubation were simultaneously assessed for the viability and acrosomal status using dual staining of FITC-PNA and PI. Results were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. A progressive increase in the proportion of live-acrosome reacted sperm was observed within 3 h of incubation in both treatment groups which slightly decreased at 4 to 5 h of incubation. At 1 to 3 h of incubation, the percentage of live-acrosome reacted sperm induced by calcium ionophore was higher (P < 0.05) than those induced by heparin and the control. However, there were no statistical differences at 4 to 5 h of incubation. A progressive reduction of the percentage of motile sperm was observed in the control as well as both treatment groups. Sperm motility decreased sharply when they were incubated in calcium ionophore compared with incubation in heparin and control groups. These results indicate that the occurrence of live-acrosome reacted sperm in the Asian elephant was induced by calcium ionophore at a rate higher than that induced by heparin.
    Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 09/2009; 80(3):146-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Artificial insemination (AI) using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI). Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years) by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4 degrees C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years) were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. One female (Khod) inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao) inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population.
    Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 02/2009; 7:75. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The serow (Capricornis sumatraensis) is a critically endangered species. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ejaculate quality in captive males, and to investigate and characterize sperm morphology. Semen was collected using electroejaculation. Mean (+/-S.D.) seminal characteristics were: semen volume 2.3+/-0.8 mL, pH 7.8+/-0.4, and osmolality 329.9+/-32.9mOsmol/kg; sperm concentration 515.8+/-263.1 x 10(6) cells/mL; wave motion score (1-5) 3.9+/-0.4; motile sperm 60.5+/-22%; viable sperm 68.3+/-9.4%; morphologically normal sperm 70.8+/-19.3%; and an opacity that was yellowish to milky-white. Sperm head length, width, degree of elongation, area, and perimeter were 6.0+/-0.6 microm, 4.3+/-0.3 microm, 71.7+/-8.6%, 19.8+/-2.5 microm(2), and 17.9+/-2.1 microm. Based on these measurements, we categorized sperm head morphometry as small, medium, or large. In addition, sperm morphology was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy; overall, morphologically normal and abnormal sperm were similar to those reported for other bovidae. In summary, this study provided baseline data regarding semen characteristics of C. sumatraensis, which should be of value in the preservation of this endangered species.
    Theriogenology 11/2008; 71(4):576-85. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of capacitating agents added at in vitro fertilization (IVF) and antioxidants supplemented during in vitro culture (IVC) on the development of buffalo embryos. In experiment I, in vitro embryo development of buffalo embryos was compared when the IVF medium was supplemented with heparin, caffeine and calcium ionophore A23187 either alone or in combination. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the cleavage rates of oocytes among the treatment groups but the development rate to the blastocyst stage and the cell numbers of blastocyst in the heparin-treated group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of other treatments. In experiment II, in vitro embryo development of buffalo embryos was compared when IVC medium was supplemented with either α-tocopherol (250 and 500 μM) or l-ascorbic acid (250 and 500 μM). The rate of development to the blastocyst stage of embryos cultured in medium supplemented with 250 μM α-tocopherol (33%, 41/123) and 250 μM l-ascorbic acid (31%, 38/123) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of those cultured in medium alone (19%, 20/108) but not significantly different (P < 0.05) from medium supplemented with either 500 μM α-tocopherol (24%, 30/123) or 500 μM l-ascorbic acid (25%, 33/133). These results suggest that buffalo spermatozoa treated with heparin were suitable for IVF and that α-tocopherol and l-ascorbic acid added during IVC increased the rate of buffalo embryo development.
    animal 10/2008; 2(10):1486-90. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether lipid peroxidation is correlated with semen quality in Asian elephant bulls. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in seminal plasma from ejaculates with varying percentages of progressive motility was measured using Thiobarbituric Acid method. Correlation between the MDA levels and percentages of progressive motility and normal morphology were performed. Results revealed that the MDA levels were significantly negative, which correlated (p<0.05) with the percentages of progressive motility and normal morphology (R=0.2131 and 0.1685, respectively). The results also showed that the MDA levels were significantly difference between each bull (p<0.01). Furthermore, when the ejaculates were grouped according to motility scores into two groups; low-(<40%) and high-percentage of progressive motility (>40%), a significant difference was detected between the MDA means (±SD) of the low-(20.7±11.4 nmol/ml) and high-percentages of progressive motility (14.4±7.8 nmol/ml) groups. The results obtained from this study suggested that MDA could be a potential parameter applicable for the assessment of elephant semen quality. It could as well be deduced from this study that oxidative stress might play a key role in low fertility due to poor semen quality in captive male elephants. This data provides beneficial information to better understanding of elephant reproduction in captivity.

Publication Stats

25 Citations
16.68 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2013
    • Mahidol University
      • • Institute of Molecular Biosciences
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      • • National Laboratory Animal Centre
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2010
    • Srinakharinwirot University
      • Department of Biology
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2009
    • Kasetsart University
      • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand