ABSTRACT: Complications of embolization and chemoembolization remain a problem even with the development of low-profile catheter material and the introduction of new embolization agents. In recent years many new embolization materials have become available for clinical use, so the possibilities and limitations of these new materials must be understood to allow safe and effective embolization. Although up to now some scientific work has been published reporting the basic risk of embolization procedures, the underlying pathomechanism remains the object of speculation. Besides complications like drug toxicity, allergic reactions, and bleeding of the puncture site, the characteristics of embolization materials must be known to understand the potential complications of nontarget embolization and reflux of embolization material. This article gives an overview of established and new embolization materials, their potential risks, and the underlying pathophysiology.
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 05/2009; 32(4):615-22. · 2.09 Impact Factor