[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maya Blue-type specimens prepared from indigo (1% wt) plus kaolinite, montmorillonite, palygorskite, sepiolite and silicalite are studied. Liquid chromatography with diode array detection, ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and pyrolysis-silylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of extracts from such specimens, combined with spectral and solid state voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electrochemical microscopy techniques provide evidence on the presence of a significant amount of dehydroindigo and isatin accompanying indigo and other minority organic compounds in all samples. Solid state electrochemistry data permits to estimate the indigo loading in archaeological Maya Blue in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 % wt. These results support the view of 'genuine' Maya Blue-type materials as complex polyfunctional organic-inorganic hybrids.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a need to develop sensitive and accurate analytical methods for determining deoxynivalenol (DON), HT-2 toxin and T-2 toxin in paprika to properly assess the relevant risk of human exposure. An optimized analytical method for determination of HT-2 toxin and T-2 toxin using capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection and another method for determination of DON by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in paprika was developed. The method for determination of HT-2 toxin and T-2 toxin that gave the best recoveries involved extraction of the sample with acetonitrile-water (84:16, v/v), clean-up by solid-phase extraction on a cartridge made of different sorbent materials followed by a further clean-up in immunoaffinity column that was specific for the two toxins. The solvent was changed and the eluate was derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and injected into the GC system. The limits of detection (LOD) for T-2 and HT-2 toxins were 7 and 3 μg/kg, respectively, and the recovery rates for paprika spiked with 1000 μg toxin/kg were 71.1% and 80.1% for HT-2 and T-2 toxins, respectively. For DON determination, the optimized method consisted of extraction with acetonitrile-water (84:16, v/v) solution followed by a solid-phase extraction clean-up process in a cartridge made of different sorbent compounds. After solvent evaporation in N(2) stream, the residue was dissolved and DON was separated and determined by LC-MS/MS. The LOD for this method was 14 μg DON/kg paprika sample and the DON recovery rate was 86.8%.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The voltammetry of microparticles is applied to characterize the electrocatalytic ability of solids towards selected electrochemical processes. The variation of catalytic currents under fixed electrochemical conditions permits to obtain composition/time data to be fitted with solid state kinetic models. This methodology is applied to analyze the thermal decomposition of magnesiochromite ferroan and chlorite chromian standards and a South Africa iron chromite ore on the basis of the significant catalytic effect on the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in aqueous alkaline media at mineral-modified graphite electrodes. Measurement of the time variation of catalytic current for OER provides a direct estimate of fractional conversion of the reactant in the course of the reaction of thermal decomposition enabling for testing different reaction kinetic models.
Journal of Materials Chemistry 04/2011; 21(18):6642-6648. · 5.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work proposes a multi-method approach that combines advanced microscopy (SEM/EDX, AFM) and spectroscopy (UV-vis and FTIR) techniques. This approach not only characterises the behaviour of the additives of two commercial poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and acrylic emulsion paints but also simultaneously characterises the changes in chemical composition and morphology observed in the paint films as a result of ageing due to the paints being exposed to an intense source of simulated daylight. In parallel, a series of mechanical tests were performed that correlate the chemical changes in composition and the changes observed in the films' mechanical properties. This work was a comparative study between both types of acrylic and PVAc paints. The results obtained are of great interest for the modern paint conservation field as they provide valuable information on the mid- and long-term behaviours of these synthetic paints.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 10/2010; 399(9):2921-37. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Archaeometallurgical materials from “La Bastida de Moixent”, a site in Valencia (Spain), from the second Iberian iron age (4th Century B.C.) have been studied using metallographic techniques, microanalysis, chemometrics and image analysis. The materials come from various phases of iron production and cupellation of argentiferous lead to obtain silver. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to determine the morphological, microstructural and topographic characteristics of the samples. Image analysis was used to obtain a numeric estimate of the main components in these materials. X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX) provides qualitative and quantitative information about the elements in the sample. The semiquantitative results have been treated by chemometric tools such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to group the different archaeological materials. These analyses provide information on the lead and iron metallurgical processes, such as silver production by cupellation used in the period. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses indicate a high quality, acceptably uniform manufactured product, indicating broad technical skill in the later metallurgical process of transformation and refinement of these materials to obtain ingots and manufactured products to trade.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patulin (PAT) is a mycotoxin produced in fruits, mainly in apples, by several fungal species that can be carried into industrial apple juice by-products during factory processing. An analytical method for determination of PAT in apple juice and another one for determination of this compound in apple purees and apple compotes by liquid chromatography are proposed in the present paper. These methods have better precision and sensitivity than previously reported methods and focus mainly on extraction and clean-up. To accomplish analytical methods with higher accuracy, lower limits of detection and simpler procedures for application in quality control of the goods, different extraction and clean-up procedures for PAT were comparatively studied. PAT recoveries in apple juice spiked with 1.0mg PAT/kg varied between 52.3% and 81.0%. The highest PAT recovery in apple puree spiked with 0.1mg PAT/kg was 82.9%. Addition of NaH(2)PO(4) during the extraction phase here reported for the first time has the advantage of keeping the pH slightly acidic, thus avoiding PAT degradation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA) and type B trichothecenes are mycotoxins that occur frequently in cereals and thus can be found in cereal by-products such as bread. The aim of this work was to study the variation of the levels of OTA, deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV) during the bread-making process. This was done by using wheat flour spiked with different levels of toxins. Mycotoxin levels were controlled after fermentation of the dough with yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and after further baking at different temperature-time combinations. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results showed a significant reduction in OTA level (p < 0.05) during fermentation of the dough. The reduction ranged between 29.8% and 33.5%, depending on the initial concentration of toxin in the flour. During this period, the level of the other mycotoxins studied was not modified. By contrast, in the baking phase there were significant changes in the levels of the four mycotoxins, although the reduction was similar under all the baking conditions. Considering all the temperature-time conditions tested, it can be concluded that during the baking period the average reduction of OTA, NIV, 3-ADON, and DON was 32.9%, 76.9%, 65.6%, and 47.9%, respectively.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 07/2009; 26(6):896-906.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aliphatic and triterpene alcohols present in vegetable oils have been identified and determined by HPLC using UV-vis and MS detection after previous derivatization with diphenic anhydride. The alcoholic fraction was obtained by saponification, extraction and TLC (according to the European Union official procedure). Derivatization was performed in tetrahydrofuran in the presence of suspended grinded urea, which increases the reaction rate and yield. Derivatized extracts were chromatographed on a C8 column using gradient elution with acetonitrile/water mixtures containing 0.1% acetic acid, with UV-vis followed by negative-ion mode MS detection. Using linear discriminant analysis of the HPLC-MS data (extracted ion chromatograms), oil samples belonging to seven botanical origins (hazelnut, sunflower, corn, extra virgin olive, soybean, peanut and grapeseed) were correctly classified with excellent resolution among all the categories.
Journal of Chromatography 12/2008; 1216(2):230-6. · 4.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A wide analytical study of South African chromite ore, material with high interest in ceramic industry, has been carried out. With this purpose, an accurate chemical identification and mineralogical characterization of the mineral and the gangue have been performed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), voltammetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), light microscopy (LM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX). The elemental composition of the sample (ore and gangue) has been obtained by XRF. The voltammetric analysis has allowed to demonstrate that iron in the sample was as Fe(II). The main compound of the chromite ore was a spinel (magnesiochromite ferroan), identified by XRD from the sample, which constitutes the chromite ore. This technique has also been useful to characterize some silicates as impurities in the chromite ore sample. Light microscopy has allowed the detection of the spinel and the identification of a silicate impurity (chrome chlorite), by means of their colouration. On the other hand, the other silicate impurity was identified as labradorite by means of X-ray microscopy by SEM/EDX. Finally, a strategy was developed to calculate the composition of each mineral in the unknown sample. The obtained results were: chromite spinel 82.89%, chlorite 12.79% and labradorite 4.32%.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The behaviour of minerals in a South African chromite ore during the increasing of the temperature has been studied. Firstly, the changes produced during the ignition process have been examined by means of thermal and differential analysis (TGA–DTA) until 1200 °C. The characterization of the initial mineral and those obtained after heating at several temperatures in room atmosphere has been performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, voltammetric analyses have allowed to determine the variation of the iron oxidation degree in the studied materials. Light microscopy was applied to find more information about the different phases by their colour. During the heating, a wide range of complex exothermic and endothermic transformations take place. Decomposition compounds were identified, which were produced by heat decomposition, loss of structural water, element substitutions and oxygen absorptions and desorptions, caused mainly by the variation of the iron oxidation degree. The spinels of the chromite ore decompose in other spinels, with a partial change of the iron oxidation degree. From nearly 800 °C, chrome oxide (Cr2O3) comes off from the chromite forming another phase, and almost at 1000 °C, a slow decrease of weight was detected, caused among others to the formation of a magnetite phase. Simultaneously, the silicates undergo strong modifications, including decompositions and incorporation of iron (II) in their structure and producing other silicates stable at high temperatures, which modify the behaviour of the pure spinels. Moreover, at 1200 °C these silicates decompose to cristobalite (SiO2).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An Iberian archaeological site located in the east of Spain is one of the most important cupellation centers found in the 4th century b.c. Different metallurgical materials were found in the archaeological site as minerals, cast slags, forged slags, metallic lead, cupella fragments and bronzes. Also was found reverbs remains used for cupper-based materials and cupellation procedure, and hearth forge remains for obtained iron material. The recuperated samples were studied by comparing samples of the same type of material by macroanalysis and microanalysis. The microanalysis and quantitation of the different archaeological materials was carried out by SEM/EDX. The information provides about the knowledge of a metallurgic process such as that of silver production by lead cupellation. The microanalysis results reflect the variety of elements that constitute the slags and other materials, and that come from the forge of the worked metallic materials. Also, the process cupellation was confirmed by the identification of lead and silver. The presence of forge slag corroborates the use of the great amount of recovered heart forges in the excavation like metallurgical structures for the iron work.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A solid-state electrochemical application of the H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) for quantifying two electroactive compounds, A, B, that produce strongly overlapped voltammetric peaks is described. It is based on peak current measurement in square-wave voltammograms recorded for solid samples containing a reference compound R, upon additions of a A- (or B-) containing standard compound. The method allows to the determination of the mass fraction of A and B by applying the H-point standard addition method to solid state voltammetry. The quotients between the currents measured at two selected potentials and the peak current of R vary linearly with the mass ratio of the added standard and the reference compound, thus providing an electrochemical method for determining the content of A and B in the sample avoiding matrix effects. The method is applied to the simultaneous determination of alizarin and purpurin in madder pigments and pictorial specimens using morin as a reference material.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An improvement of methodologies for characterising synthetic resins used in varnishes employed for art purposes has been suggested. Several kinds of standard of the most common polymeric resins (acrylic, vinyl, poly(vinyl alcohol), alkyd, cellulose nitrate, latex, polyester, polyurethane, epoxy, organosilicic, and ketonic) were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Synthetic resins characterization is based on the mathematical treatment of their whole spectrum, dividing it in 13 sections, avoiding the one-by-one interpretation of the absorption bands. The mathematical model takes as variables the maximal absorbance of each section, and each synthetic standard resin as categories. Two exploratory analysis methods, Hierarchical Clustering and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and a classificatory chemometric tool, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), are tested, validating the models by leave-one-out method. LDA is proved to be a powerful tool for grouping objects in categories, providing a satisfactory distinction of polymeric resin standards. The described analytical procedure has successfully been applied to characterization of synthetic resins contained in commercial varnishes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The organic constituents of historical vanishes from two ancient Italian lutes and a Stradivari violin, kept in the Musée de la musique in Paris, have been characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results have been compared with the chromatograms and mass spectra of recent as well as old naturally aged reference materials. The three historical varnishes analyzed have been shown to be oil varnishes, probably mixtures of linseed oil with resins. Identification of diterpenoids and triterpenoids compounds, and of the resins that may have been ingredients of the varnishes, are discussed in this paper.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mass spectrometry methodology to characterize drying oil used as binding media and varnishes in pictorial artworks, prior to conservation or restoration treatment, is proposed. The analytical treatment requires prior basic hydrolysis of the samples to release the fatty acids: caprylic, pelargonic, capric, sebacic, azelaic, suberic, eicosanoic, lauric, mirystic, palmitic, linolenic, linoleic, oleic and stearic, followed by separation from the matrix by a hexane/water extraction. After removing the solvent, the remaining solid is dissolved in potassium hydroxide, propanol and methanol. The mixture is directly infused into a mass spectrometer without any previous derivatization or separation steps. The detector is operated in electrospray negative ion mode and the [M-H](-) ions of the fatty acids enable identification of the acids. Obtained data for fatty acid ion abundances are analyzed by linear discriminant analysis. The drying oils studied (linseed, poppy seed and walnut) were satisfactorily distinguished. The analytical method shows adequate sensitivity, reproducibility, speed and ease. The proposed methodology has been successfully applied to samples from artistic samples belonging to the Cultural Heritage of Valencia (Spain).
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 02/2007; 21(6):851-6. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A solid-state electrochemical application of the H-point standard addition method to the quantification of two depositable metals A and B, which produce strongly overlapped stripping peaks, is described. The method is based on the mechanical transference of mixtures of the solid sample plus a selected compound, of a reference depositable metal R, and of known amounts of a reference material containing A or B, to paraffin-impregnated graphite electrodes. After a reductive deposition step, voltammograms recorded for those modified electrodes immersed into a suitable electrolyte produce stripping peaks for the oxidation of all of the metals deposited. Measurement of the currents at selected potentials in overlapping peaks corresponding to the stripping of A and B permits the quantitation of these metals in the solid sample, while avoiding matrix effects. The method was applied to the simultaneous determination of Pb and Sn in archaeological glazes using PbCO(3) and SnO(2) as standards and ZnO as a reference material.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 09/2006; 385(8):1552-61. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new method for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer has been developed. The new method has been compared with a reference method currently accepted as AOAC official first action. The limits of detection and quantification of the proposed method were 0.0008 and 0.0025 ng/ml, respectively, while they were 0.0025 and 0.0075 ng/ml, respectively, in the AOAC method used as reference. The recovery levels in the 0.025-0.40 ng OTA/ml spiking range for the proposed and the reference methods were 80.6-87.6% and 78.2-83.8%, respectively. The relative standard deviations of recoveries were 2.6-7.5% for the proposed method and 0.7-6.1% for the reference method. Passing and Bablok regression analysis of recovery data obtained by the proposed method versus data obtained by the reference method on an OTA-spiked beer sample showed good correlation (r2 = 0.9993), while the slope and intercept were 1.049 and -0.0013, respectively. The advantage of the proposed method is the low cost of the materials used in sample preparation because expensive immunoaffinity columns are not needed to clean-up samples while it maintains or even increases the good performance of the reference method. The proposed method was applied to 69 beer samples from different geographic origins (national and imported) but purchased in the Spanish market. They were found to be contaminated with OTA in the range from 0.008 to 0.498 ng/ml (average: 0.070 ng/ml). Five samples surpassed the limit recommended by the European Union (0.2 ng OTA/g).
Journal of Chromatography 08/2006; 1121(2):178-83. · 4.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present work deals with the toxigenic mycobiota occurring in Spanish malting barley and the capability for producing mycotoxins by several important toxigenic fungi. One hundred and eighty seven samples of malting barley were gathered from Spanish breweries before processing. One hundred and fifty kernels per sample were surface-sanitized with a 2% sodium hypochlorite solution and incubated on three culture media. The most abundant fungi were species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, which were present in 93%, 82.3%, 57.8% and 27.8% of the samples, respectively. To evaluate their mycotoxin producing potential a number of isolates belonging to each genus, except Penicillium, were randomly selected and incubated on culture media known to be appropriate for production of mycotoxins. Alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were produced by 26.7% of Alternaria spp. isolates (all belonged to Alternaria alternata). All tested isolates of F. verticillioides produced fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and 61.3% of them produced fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)), whereas FB(1) was synthesized by 83.3% and FB(2) by 77.8% of F. proliferatum isolates. Twenty percent of the isolates of the Aspergillus flavus/A. parasiticus group had the capability to produce aflatoxin B(1) and aflatoxin B(2). Thirty out of 34 isolates of F. graminearum produced deoxynivalenol and zearalenone whereas the other 4 isolates produced nivalenol. Ochratoxin A was detected in 75% and 15% of isolates of Aspergillus section Nigri and A. ochraceus, respectively. This is the first survey carried out in Spain on the toxigenic mycobiota contaminating malting barley in breweries and the mycotoxin producing capacity of several species. The information obtained is useful for assessing the risk of mycotoxins in beer.
International Journal of Food Microbiology 05/2006; 108(2):196-203. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) are the main members of a family of mycotoxins produced by various fungal species belonging to the Gibberella fujikuroi complex. The present work shows the results of a comparative study of various clean-up and derivatization procedures for analysis of fumonisins in rice cultures. Fumonisins were extracted from rice with acetonitrile/water (50/50, v/v). For clean-up, three solid-phase extraction procedures were assayed (C18 cartridge, SAX cartridge, and a combination of both). Two reagents (o-phthaldialdehyde and 4-fluoro-7-nitro-benzofurazan) were studied comparatively for formation of fluorescent derivatives. The separation was carried out by LC using a fluorescence detector. The best procedure for analysis of fumonisins in rice involved clean-up with C18 cartridge and derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde. The limit of detection was 0.010 mg kg(-1) for both toxins. In the 10-500 mg kg(-1) spiking level range, the recovery rates for FB1 and FB2 in rice varied from 94.6% to 103.6% and from 96.3% to 101.9%, respectively. The optimized analytical method for determination of fumonisins in rice was applied to the study of FB1 and FB2 production by four isolates of the G. fujikuroi species complex in rice cultures carried out at different temperatures and water activities to establish the influence of strain and environmental conditions on fumonisin production in this cereal. In general, fumonisin production was the highest at 20 degrees C and lowest at 37 degrees C. Four of the five assayed water activity (aw) values (0.97, 0.98, 0.99, and 1.0) did not affect significantly fumonisin accumulation but fumonisins were not detected in cultures when aw was 0.96.