[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LSN862 is a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha/gamma dual agonist with a unique in vitro profile that shows improvements on glucose and lipid levels in rodent models of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Data from in vitro binding, cotransfection, and cofactor recruitment assays characterize LSN862 as a high-affinity PPARgamma partial agonist with relatively less but significant PPARalpha agonist activity. Using these same assays, rosiglitazone was characterized as a high-affinity PPARgamma full agonist with no PPARalpha activity. When administered to Zucker diabetic fatty rats, LSN862 displayed significant glucose and triglyceride lowering and a significantly greater increase in adiponectin levels compared with rosiglitazone. Expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways in the liver and in two fat depots from compound-treated Zucker diabetic fatty rats was evaluated. Only LSN862 significantly elevated mRNA levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 and bifunctional enzyme in the liver and lipoprotein lipase in both fat depots. In contrast, both LSN862 and rosiglitazone decreased phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase in the liver and increased malic enzyme mRNA levels in the fat. In addition, LSN862 was examined in a second rodent model of type 2 diabetes, db/db mice. In this study, LSN862 demonstrated statistically better antidiabetic efficacy compared with rosiglitazone with an equivalent side effect profile. LSN862, rosiglitazone, and fenofibrate were each evaluated in the humanized apoA1 transgenic mouse. At the highest dose administered, LSN862 and fenofibrate reduced very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas, rosiglitazone increased very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. LSN862, fenofibrate, and rosiglitazone produced maximal increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 65, 54, and 30%, respectively. These findings show that PPARgamma full agonist activity is not necessary to achieve potent and efficacious insulin-sensitizing benefits and demonstrate the therapeutic advantages of a PPARalpha/gamma dual agonist.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta) are produced by a sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases. The lack of Abeta production in beta-APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1)(-/-) mice suggests that BACE1 is the principal beta-secretase in mammalian neurons. Transfection of human APP and BACE1 into neurons derived from wild-type and BACE1(-/-) mice supports cleavage of APP at the canonical beta-secretase site. However, these studies also revealed an alternative BACE1 cleavage site in APP, designated as beta', resulting in Abeta peptides starting at Glu11. The apparent inability of human BACE1 to make this beta'-cleavage in murine APP, and vice versa, led to the hypothesis that this alternative cleavage was species-specific. In contrast, the results from human BACE1 transgenic mice demonstrated that the human BACE1 is able to cleave the endogenous murine APP at the beta'-cleavage site. To address this discrepancy, we designed fluorescent resonance energy transfer peptide substrates containing the beta- and beta'-cleavage sites within human and murine APP to compare: (i) the enzymatic efficiency; (ii) binding kinetics of a BACE1 active site inhibitor LY2039911; and (iii) the pharmacological profiles for human and murine recombinant BACE1. Both BACE1 orthologs were able to cleave APP at the beta- and beta'-sites, although with different efficiencies. Moreover, the inhibitory potency of LY2039911 toward recombinant human and native BACE1 from mouse or guinea pig was indistinguishable. In summary, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant BACE1 can recognize and cleave APP peptide substrates at the postulated beta'-cleavage site. It does not appear to be a significant species specificity to this cleavage.
Journal of Neurochemistry 01/2005; 91(6):1249-59. · 3.97 Impact Factor