John B A G Haanen

Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (160)1475.92 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The development of targeted inhibitors, like vemurafenib, has greatly improved the clinical outcome of BRAF(V600E) metastatic melanoma. However, resistance to such compounds represents a formidable problem. Using whole-exome sequencing and functional analyses, we have investigated the nature and pleiotropy of vemurafenib resistance in a melanoma patient carrying multiple drug-resistant metastases. Resistance was caused by a plethora of mechanisms, all of which reactivated the MAPK pathway. In addition to three independent amplifications and an aberrant form of BRAF(V600E), we identified a new activating insertion in MEK1. This MEK1(T55delins) (RT) mutation could be traced back to a fraction of the pre-treatment lesion and not only provided protection against vemurafenib but also promoted local invasion of transplanted melanomas. Analysis of patient-derived xenografts (PDX) from therapy-refractory metastases revealed that multiple resistance mechanisms were present within one metastasis. This heterogeneity, both inter- and intra-tumorally, caused an incomplete capture in the PDX of the resistance mechanisms observed in the patient. In conclusion, vemurafenib resistance in a single patient can be established through distinct events, which may be preexisting. Furthermore, our results indicate that PDX may not harbor the full genetic heterogeneity seen in the patient's melanoma. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.
    EMBO Molecular Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.15252/emmm.201404914 · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report final results with extended follow-up from a global, expanded-access trial that pre-regulatory approval provided sunitinib to metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients, ineligible for registration-directed trials. Patients ⩾18 years received oral sunitinib 50 mg per day on a 4-weeks-on-2-weeks-off schedule. Safety was assessed regularly. Tumour measurements were scheduled per local practice. A total of 4543 patients received sunitinib. Median treatment duration and follow-up were 7.5 and 13.6 months. Objective response rate was 16% (95% confidence interval (CI): 15-17). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 9.4 months (95% CI: 8.8-10.0) and 18.7 months (95% CI: 17.5-19.5). Median PFS in subgroups of interest: aged ⩾65 years (33%), 10.1 months; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ⩾2 (14%), 3.5 months; non-clear cell histology (12%), 6.0 months; and brain metastases (7%), 5.3 months. OS was strongly associated with the International Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium prognostic model (n=4065). The most common grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events were thrombocytopenia (10%), fatigue (9%), and asthenia, neutropenia, and hand-foot syndrome (each 7%). Final analysis of the sunitinib expanded-access trial provided a good opportunity to evaluate the long-term side effects of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor used worldwide in mRCC. Efficacy and safety findings were consistent with previous results.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 18 June 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.196 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 06/2015; DOI:10.1038/bjc.2015.196 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Nivolumab (a programmed death 1 [PD-1] checkpoint inhibitor) and ipilimumab (a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4] checkpoint inhibitor) have been shown to have complementary activity in metastatic melanoma. In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, nivolumab alone or nivolumab plus ipilimumab was compared with ipilimumab alone in patients with metastatic melanoma. Methods We assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, 945 previously untreated patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma to nivolumab alone, nivolumab plus ipilimumab, or ipilimumab alone. Progression-free survival and overall survival were coprimary end points. Results regarding progression-free survival are presented here. Results The median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.9 to 16.7) with nivolumab plus ipilimumab, as compared with 2.9 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 3.4) with ipilimumab (hazard ratio for death or disease progression, 0.42; 99.5% CI, 0.31 to 0.57; P<0.001), and 6.9 months (95% CI, 4.3 to 9.5) with nivolumab (hazard ratio for the comparison with ipilimumab, 0.57; 99.5% CI, 0.43 to 0.76; P<0.001). In patients with tumors positive for the PD-1 ligand (PD-L1), the median progression-free survival was 14.0 months in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group and in the nivolumab group, but in patients with PD-L1-negative tumors, progression-free survival was longer with the combination therapy than with nivolumab alone (11.2 months [95% CI, 8.0 to not reached] vs. 5.3 months [95% CI, 2.8 to 7.1]). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 16.3% of the patients in the nivolumab group, 55.0% of those in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group, and 27.3% of those in the ipilimumab group. Conclusions Among previously untreated patients with metastatic melanoma, nivolumab alone or combined with ipilimumab resulted in significantly longer progression-free survival than ipilimumab alone. In patients with PD-L1-negative tumors, the combination of PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade was more effective than either agent alone. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 067 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01844505 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 05/2015; DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1504030 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, a study of ours showed that the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib improves progression-free survival compared with dabrafenib and placebo in patients with BRAF Val600Lys/Glu mutation-positive metastatic melanoma. The study was continued to assess the secondary endpoint of overall survival, which we report in this Article. We did this double-blind phase 3 study at 113 sites in 14 countries. We enrolled previously untreated patients with BRAF Val600Glu or Val600Lys mutation-positive unresectable stage IIIC or stage IV melanoma. Participants were computer-randomised (1:1) to receive a combination of dabrafenib (150 mg orally twice daily) and trametinib (2 mg orally once daily), or dabrafenib and placebo. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival and overall survival was a secondary endpoint. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01584648. Between May 4, 2012, and Nov 30, 2012, we screened 947 patients for eligibility, of whom 423 were randomly assigned to receive dabrafenib and trametinib (n=211) or dabrafenib only (n=212). The final data cutoff was Jan 12, 2015, at which time 222 patients had died. Median overall survival was 25·1 months (95% CI 19·2-not reached) in the dabrafenib and trametinib group versus 18·7 months (15·2-23·7) in the dabrafenib only group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·71, 95% CI 0·55-0·92; p=0·0107). Overall survival was 74% at 1 year and 51% at 2 years in the dabrafenib and trametinib group versus 68% and 42%, respectively, in the dabrafenib only group. Based on 301 events, median progression-free survival was 11·0 months (95% CI 8·0-13·9) in the dabrafenib and trametinib group and 8·8 months (5·9-9·3) in the dabrafenib only group (HR 0·67, 95% CI 0·53-0·84; p=0·0004; unadjusted for multiple testing). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 181 (87%) of 209 patients in the dabrafenib and trametinib group and 189 (90%) of 211 patients in the dabrafenib only group; the most common was pyrexia (108 patients, 52%) in the dabrafenib and trametinib group, and hyperkeratosis (70 patients, 33%) in the dabrafenib only group. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 67 (32%) patients in the dabrafenib and trametinib group and 66 (31%) patients in the dabrafenib only group. The improvement in overall survival establishes the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib as the standard targeted treatment for BRAF Val600 mutation-positive melanoma. Studies assessing dabrafenib and trametinib in combination with immunotherapies are ongoing. GlaxoSmithKline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60898-4 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here, we describe a fatal Serious Adverse Event observed in a patient infused with autologous T cell receptor (TCR) transduced T cells. This TCR, originally obtained from a melanoma patient, recognizes the well-described HLA-A*0201 restricted 26-35 epitope of MART-1, and was not affinity enhanced. Patient 1 with metastatic melanoma experienced a cerebral hemorrhage, epileptic seizures and a witnessed cardiac arrest 6 days after cell infusion. Three days later, the patient died from multiple organ failure and irreversible neurologic damage.After T cell infusion, levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, CRP and procalcitonin increased to extreme levels, indicative of a cytokine release syndrome or T cell mediated inflammatory response. Infused T cells could be recovered from blood, broncho-alveolar lavage, ascites, and after autopsy from tumor sites and heart tissue. High levels of NT-proBNP indicate semi-acute heart failure. No cross reactivity of the modified T cells towards a beating cardiomyocyte culture was observed. Together, these observations suggest that high levels of inflammatory cytokines alone or in combination with semi-acute heart failure and epileptic seizure may have contributed substantially to the occurrence of the acute and lethal event. Protocol modifications to limit the risk of T cell activation-induced toxicity are discussed.Molecular Therapy (2015); doi:10.1038/mt.2015.60.
    Molecular Therapy 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/mt.2015.60 · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular immunity against cancer can be achieved with viral vector- and DNA-based immunizations. In preclinical studies cancer vaccines are very potent, but in clinical trials these potencies are not achieved yet. Thus a rational approach to improve cancer vaccines is warranted. We previously demonstrated that the relatively low intrinsic immunogenicity of DNA vaccines could be enhanced by inclusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting and universal helper epitopes within the vaccine. We now evaluated whether an optimal antigen format, as defined in DNA vaccines can further enhance the effectiveness of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV) vaccines. To this purpose, we generated, characterized and evaluated the efficacy of rSFV replicon particles expressing human papilloma virus E6 and/or E7 proteins fused to several helper T cell epitopes and an ER targeting signal. Here we show that inclusion of a helper cassette and an ER targeting signal enhanced protein stability and markedly augmented the frequencies of HPV-specific T cells. Even at an immunization dose of as low as 10(5) replicon particles this novel vaccine achieved tumor regression and protection. Thus, even highly effective viral vector vaccines can benefit from an improved antigen format, based on the inclusion of defined helper epitopes and ER targeting.Gene Therapy accepted article preview online, 10 March 2015. doi:10.1038/gt.2015.24.
    Gene Therapy 03/2015; DOI:10.1038/gt.2015.24 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selective BRAF inhibition (BRAFi) by vemurafenib or dabrafenib has become approved standard treatment in BRAF V600 mutated advanced stage melanoma. While the response rate is high, the response duration is limited with a progression-free survival (PFS) of 5-6months. Our observation of accelerated disease progression within some patients after stopping vemurafenib treatment has fostered the idea of treatment beyond progression (BRAFi TBP). In this retrospective study, we analysed 70 metastatic melanoma patients, treated at our institute, who experienced progression after prior objective response upon treatment with vemurafenib. Thirty-five patients that continued treatment beyond progression are compared with 35 patients who stopped BRAFi treatment at disease progression. Median overall survival beyond documented progression was found to be 5.2months versus 1.4months (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.8-7.4 versus 0.6-3.4; Log-Rank p=0.002) in favour of BRAFi TBP. In the multivariate survival analysis, stopping treatment at disease progression was significantly associated with shorter survival (hazard ratio: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.04-3.55; p=0.04). Our results suggest that continuing vemurafenib treatment beyond progression may be beneficial in advanced melanoma patients, who prior to progression responded to vemurafenib. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 02/2015; 51(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2015.01.009 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • John B.A.G. Haanen, Hans van Thienen, Christian U. Blank
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    ABSTRACT: Immune checkpoint molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1), but also LAG-3 and TIM-3, are involved in regulation of peripheral tolerance in order to prevent autoimmunity. Blocking of these cell surface proteins by antibodies has resulted in remarkable anti-tumor immunity; however this immunity is accompanied by immune-related adverse reactions (irAEs), resembling autoimmune diseases. Hence, treatment with immunosuppressive drugs is highly effective and resolves the symptoms caused by these adverse events rapidly. In this review, toxicity patterns observed with immune checkpoint blockade are described for single-agent and combination treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Seminars in Oncology 02/2015; 42(3). DOI:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2015.02.011 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundNHS-IL2 (selectikine, EMD 521873, MSB0010445) consists of human NHS76 (antibody specific for necrotic DNA) fused to genetically modified human interleukin 2 (IL-2) and selectively activates the high-affinity IL-2 receptor. Based on an evolving investigational concept to prime the tumor microenvironment with ionizing radiation prior to initiating immunotherapy, 2 related studies were conducted and are reported here. The first, a preclinical study, tests the systemic effect of the immunocytokine NHS-IL2 and radiotherapy in a lung carcinoma animal model; the second, a phase Ib trial in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), was designed to determine the safety and tolerability of NHS-IL2 in combination with radiotherapy directly following first-line palliative chemotherapyMethods Tumor-bearing C57Bl/6 mice were treated with NHS-IL2 alone (5 mg/kg; days 7¿9), fractionated radiotherapy (3.6 Gy; days 0¿4) plus cisplatin (4 mg/kg; day 0), or the triple combination. Metastatic NSCLC patients who achieved disease control with first-line palliative chemotherapy were enrolled in the phase Ib trial. Patients received local irradiation (5x 4 Gy) of a single pulmonary nodule. Dose-escalated NHS-IL2 was administered as 1-h intravenous infusion on 3 consecutive days every 3 weeksResultsNHS-IL2 plus radiotherapy induced immune response activation and complete tumor growth regressions in 80%¿100% of mice. In patients with metastatic NSCLC treated with NHS-IL2 (3, 3, and 7 patients in the 0.15-mg/kg, 0.30-mg/kg, and 0.45-mg/kg cohorts, respectively), maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Most frequently reported adverse events were fatigue, anorexia, and rash. Transient increases in leukocyte subsets were observed. In 3 patients, thyroid gland dysfunction occurred. No objective responses were reported; long-term survival was observed in 2 patients, including 1 patient with long-term tumor controlConclusions Combining NHS-IL2 with radiotherapy achieved synergistic antitumor activity in preclinical studies, supporting the use in lung cancer patients. This combination was well tolerated and 2 of 13 patients achieved long-term survival.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT00879866.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 01/2015; 13(1):32. DOI:10.1186/s12967-015-0397-0 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor-specific neo-antigens that arise as a consequence of mutations are thought to be important for the therapeutic efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. Accumulating evidence suggests that neo-antigens may be commonly recognized by intratumoral CD8+ T cells, but it is unclear whether neo-antigen-specific CD4+ T cells also frequently reside within human tumors. In view of the accepted role of tumor-specific CD4+ T-cell responses in tumor control, we addressed whether neo-antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell reactivity is a common property in human melanoma.
    Nature Medicine 12/2014; DOI:10.1038/nm.3773 · 28.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After an infection, pathogen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells) persist in nonlymphoid tissues to provide rapid control upon reinfection, and vaccination strategies that create T(RM) cell pools at sites of pathogen entry are therefore attractive. However, it is not well understood how T(RM) cells provide such pathogen protection. Here, we demonstrate that activated T(RM) cells in mouse skin profoundly alter the local tissue environment by inducing a number of broadly active antiviral and antibacterial genes. This "pathogen alert" allows skin T(RM) cells to protect against an antigenically unrelated virus. These data describe a mechanism by which tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells protect previously infected sites that is rapid, amplifies the activation of a small number of cells into an organ-wide response, and has the capacity to control escape variants.
    Science 10/2014; 346(6205):101-5. DOI:10.1126/science.1254803 · 31.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition, as compared with BRAF inhibition alone, delays the emergence of resistance and reduces toxic effects in patients who have melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations. Methods In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 423 previously untreated patients who had unresectable stage IIIC or stage IV melanoma with a BRAF V600E or V600K mutation to receive a combination of dabrafenib (150 mg orally twice daily) and trametinib (2 mg orally once daily) or dabrafenib and placebo. The primary end point was progression-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, response rate, response duration, and safety. A preplanned interim overall survival analysis was conducted. Results The median progression-free survival was 9.3 months in the dabrafenib-trametinib group and 8.8 months in the dabrafenib-only group (hazard ratio for progression or death in the dabrafenib-trametinib group, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.99; P=0.03). The overall response rate was 67% in the dabrafenib-trametinib group and 51% in the dabrafenib-only group (P=0.002). At 6 months, the interim overall survival rate was 93% with dabrafenib-trametinib and 85% with dabrafenib alone (hazard ratio for death, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.94; P=0.02). However, a specified efficacy-stopping boundary (two-sided P=0.00028) was not crossed. Rates of adverse events were similar in the two groups, although more dose modifications occurred in the dabrafenib-trametinib group. The rate of cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma was lower in the dabrafenib-trametinib group than in the dabrafenib-only group (2% vs. 9%), whereas pyrexia occurred in more patients (51% vs. 28%) and was more often severe (grade 3, 6% vs. 2%) in the dabrafenib-trametinib group. Conclusions A combination of dabrafenib and trametinib, as compared with dabrafenib alone, improved the rate of progression-free survival in previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; Clinical Trials.gov number, NCT01584648 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 09/2014; DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1406037 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-CTLA-4 treatment improves the survival of patients with advanced-stage melanoma. However, although the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab is now an approved treatment for patients with metastatic disease, it remains unknown by which mechanism it boosts tumor-specific T cell activity. In particular, it is unclear whether treatment amplifies previously induced T cell responses or whether it induces new tumor-specific T cell reactivities. Using a combination ultraviolet (UV)-induced peptide exchange and peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) combinatorial coding, we monitored immune reactivity against a panel of 145 melanoma-associated epitopes in a cohort of patients receiving anti-CTLA-4 treatment. Comparison of pre- and posttreatment T cell reactivities in peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples of 40 melanoma patients demonstrated that anti-CTLA-4 treatment induces a significant increase in the number of detectable melanoma-specific CD8 T cell responses (P = 0.0009). In striking contrast, the magnitude of both virus-specific and melanoma-specific T cell responses that were already detected before start of therapy remained unaltered by treatment (P = 0.74). The observation that anti-CTLA-4 treatment induces a significant number of newly detected T cell responses-but only infrequently boosts preexisting immune responses-provides strong evidence for anti-CTLA-4 therapy-enhanced T cell priming as a component of the clinical mode of action.
    Science translational medicine 09/2014; 6(254-254):254ra128. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3008918 · 14.41 Impact Factor
  • Sander Kelderman, Ton N. M. Schumacher, John B.A.G. Haanen
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    ABSTRACT: A number of immunotherapies, in particular immune checkpoint targeting antibodies and adoptive T-cell therapies, are starting to transform the treatment of advanced cancers. The likelihood to respond to these immunotherapies differs strongly across tumor types, with response rates for checkpoint targeting being the highest in advanced melanoma, renal cell cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. However, also non-responsiveness is observed, indicating the presence of intrinsic resistance or naturally acquired resistance. In addition, a subgroup of patients that do initially respond to immunotherapy will later recur, thereby also pointing towards a role of therapy-induced acquired resistance. Here, we review our current understanding of both intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in cancer immunotherapy, and discuss potential strategies to overcome them.
    Molecular Oncology 09/2014; 8(6). DOI:10.1016/j.molonc.2014.07.011 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in genetic engineering have made it possible to generate human T cell products that carry desired functionalities, such as the ability to recognize cancer cells. The currently used strategies for the generation of gene-modified T cell products lead to highly differentiated cells within the infusion product, and on the basis of data obtained in preclinical models, this is likely to impact the efficacy of these products. We set out to develop a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) protocol that yields TCR gene modified T cells with more favourably properties for clinical application. Here, we show the robust clinical scale production of human peripheral blood T cells with an early memory phenotype that express a MART-1-specific T cell receptor. By combining selection and stimulation using anti-CD3/CD28 beads for retroviral transduction, followed by expansion in the presence of IL-7 and IL-15, production of a well-defined clinical scale TCR gene modified T cell product could be achieved. A major fraction of the T cells generated in this fashion were shown to co-express CD62L and CD45RA, and express CD27 and CD28 indicating a central memory or memory stem-like phenotype. Furthermore, these cells produced IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2, and displayed cytolytic activity against target cells expressing the relevant antigen. The T cell products manufactured by this robust and validated GMP production process are now undergoing testing in a phase I/IIa clinical trial in HLA-A*02:01 - MART-1 positive advanced stage melanoma patients. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical trial protocol in which the combination of IL-7 and IL-15 has been applied for the generation of gene-modified T cell products.
    Human Gene Therapy Methods 08/2014; DOI:10.1089/hgtb.2014.004 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated a large series of immune (escape) markers, relevant to T-cell function, as potential biomarkers for clinical outcome following immunotherapy. We retrospectively studied the expression of immune (escape) markers in metastatic melanoma tissues of 27 patients before autologous tumor cell vaccination, and 16 patients who were intended to treat but were not vaccinated because of rapid disease progression. Immunohistochemical data of infiltrating (suppressive) cells, such as T cells, regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and mast cells, or the expression of T-cell inhibitory factors (PD-1/PD-L1, IDO, and galectins), cytotoxic molecules (granzyme-B), melanocyte differentiation antigens, HLA class-I and tolerogenic cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-β] were correlated statistically to clinical outcome and overall survival (OS). Significantly more tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (both P < 0.05) were found in nonprogressors to vaccination (n = 9; median OS, 56 months), compared with progressors (n = 18; median OS, 9.5 months). Moreover, granzyme-B expression was elevated in the tumors of nonprogressors, suggesting activated cytotoxic T cells or natural killer cells. T-cell infiltration and granzyme-B expression significantly correlated with overall OS. T-cell inhibitory factors and suppressive cells did not correlate with OS, suggesting minor influence of these immune-escape markers on clinical outcome. The data of progressors were comparable with those from patients with rapid progression (not vaccinated; n = 16; median OS, 3 months). Our study shows that high numbers of intratumoral activated CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, before autologous tumor cell vaccination, are associated with favorable clinical outcome. Analyses of these markers in the patients' tumor tissues before immunotherapy may therefore be a valuable tool to select patients for whom the treatment may result in potential clinical benefit. Cancer Immunol Res; 2(6); 538-46. ©2014 AACR.
    06/2014; 2(6):538-46. DOI:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0097
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Plasma exposure of sunitinib shows large inter-individual variation. Therefore, a pharmacokinetic (PK) study was performed to determine safety and feasibility of sunitinib dosing based on PK levels. Methods: Patients were treated with sunitinib 37.5 mg once daily. At days 15 and 29 of treatment, plasma trough levels of sunitinib and N-desethyl sunitinib were measured. If the total trough level (TTL) was <50 ng ml−1 and the patient did not show any grade ⩾3 toxicity, the daily sunitinib dose was increased by 12.5 mg. If the patient suffered from grade ⩾3 toxicity, the sunitinib dose was lowered by 12.5 mg. Results: Twenty-nine out of 43 patients were evaluable for PK assessments. Grade ⩾3 adverse events were experienced in seven patients (24%) at the starting dose and in nine patients (31%) after dose escalation. TTLs were below target in 15 patients (52%) at the starting dose. Of these, five patients (17%) reached target TTL after dose escalation without additional toxicity. Conclusions: In a third of the patients that were below target TTL at standard dose, the sunitinib dose could be increased without additional toxicities. This could be the basis for future studies and the implementation of a PK-guided dosing strategy in clinical practice.
    British Journal of Cancer 04/2014; 110(10). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.194 · 4.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,475.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2015
    • Netherlands Cancer Institute
      • • Department of Medical Oncology
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Division of Immunology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2014
    • Leiden University
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • University of Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Clinical Oncology
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2008–2010
    • VU University Medical Center
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2009
    • Slotervaartziekenhuis
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2005
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States