[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy.
The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, "QIA alone," (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure-derived from the dual-energy mammography-of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, "3CB alone", and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, "QIA + 3CB." Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland-Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis.
The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the "QIA alone" method, 0.72 (0.07) for "3CB alone" method, and 0.86 (0.04) for "QIA+3CB" combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between "QIA + 3CB" and "QIA alone" but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [-0.17 to + 0.26]).
In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.
Medical Physics 03/2014; 41(3):031915. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding whether mammographic density (MD) is associated with all breast tumor subtypes and whether the strength of association varies by age is important for utilizing MD in risk models.
Data were pooled from six studies including 3414 women with breast cancer and 7199 without who underwent screening mammography. Percent MD was assessed from digitized film-screen mammograms using a computer-assisted threshold technique. We used polytomous logistic regression to calculate breast cancer odds according to tumor type, histopathological characteristics, and receptor (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)) status by age (<55, 55--64, and >=65 years).
MD was positively associated with risk of invasive tumors across all ages, with a two-fold increased risk for high (>51%) versus average density (11-25%). Women ages <55 years with high MD had stronger increased risk of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) compared to women ages 55--64 and >=65 years (Page-interaction = 0.02). Among all ages, MD had a stronger association with large (>2.1 cm) versus small tumors and positive versus negative lymph node status (P's < 0.01). For women ages <55 years, there was a stronger association of MD with ER-negative breast cancer than ER-positive tumors compared to women ages 55--64 and >=65 years (Page-interaction = 0.04). MD was positively associated with both HER2-negative and HER2-positive tumors within each age group.
MD is strongly associated with all breast cancer subtypes, but particularly tumors of large size and positive lymph nodes across all ages, and ER-negative status among women ages <55 years, suggesting high MD may play an important role in tumor aggressiveness, especially in younger women.
Breast cancer research: BCR 11/2013; 15(6):R104. · 5.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have described the long-term repeatability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. Even fewer studies have been performed with enough participants to identify possible precision covariates such as sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to investigate the long-term repeatability of both total and subregional body composition measurements and their associations with covariates in a large sample. Two valid whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were available for 609 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2000-2002. Participants with scan-quality issues were excluded. Participants varied in race and ethnicity, sex, age (mean 38.8 ± 17.5; range 16-69 yr), and BMI (mean, 26.9 ± 5.2; range 14.1-43.5 kg/m(2)). The length of time between scans ranged from 3 to 51 days (mean, 18.7 ± 8.4). Precision error estimates for total body measures (bone mineral density, bone mineral content, lean mass, total mass, fat mass, and percent body fat) were calculated as root mean square percent coefficients of variation and standard deviations. The average root mean square percent coefficients of variation and root mean square standard deviations of the precision error for total body variables were 1.12 and 0.01 g/cm(2) for bone mineral density, 1.14 and 27.3 g for bone mineral content, 1.97 and 505 g for fat mass, 1.46 and 760 g for lean mass, 1.10 and 858 g for total mass, and 1.80 and 0.59 for percent body fat. In general, only fat and lean masses were impacted by participant and scan qualities (obesity category, sex, the magnitude of the body composition variables, and time between scans). We conclude that long-term precision error values are impacted by BMI, and sex. Our long-term precision error estimates may be more suitable than short-term precision for calculating least significant change and monitoring time intervals.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry 11/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004) includes adult and pediatric comparisons for total body bone and body composition results. Because dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements from different manufacturers are not standardized, NHANES reference values currently are applicable only to a single make and model of Hologic DXA system. The purpose of this study was to derive body composition reference curves for GE Healthcare Lunar DXA systems. Published values from the NHANES 1999-2004 survey were acquired from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Using previously reported cross-calibration equations between Hologic and GE-Lunar, we converted the total body and regional bone and soft-tissue measurements from NHANES 1999-2004 to GE-Lunar values. The LMS (LmsChartMaker Pro Version 3.5) curve fitting method was used to generate GE-Lunar reference curves. Separate curves were generated for each sex and ethnicity. The reference curves were also divided into pediatric (≤20 years old) and adult (>20 years old) groups. Adult reference curves were derived as a function of age. Additional relationships of pediatric DXA values were derived as a function of height, lean mass, and bone area. Robustness was tested between Hologic and GE-Lunar Z-score values. The NHANES 1999-2004 survey included a sample of 20,672 participants' (9630 female) DXA scans. A total of 8056 participants were younger than 20 yr and were included in the pediatric reference data set. Participants enrolled in the study who weighed more than 136 kg (over scanner table limit) were excluded. The average Z-scores comparing the new GE-Lunar reference curves are close to zero, and the standard deviation of the Z-scores are close to one for all variables. As expected, all measurements on the GE-Lunar reference curves for participants younger than 20 yr increase monotonically with age. In the adult population, most of the curves are constant at younger age and drop moderately as age increases. We have presented NHANES reference curves applicable to DXA whole-body scans acquired on GE Healthcare Lunar systems by age, sex and ethnicity. Users of GE Healthcare GE-Lunar DXA systems can now benefit from the large body composition reference data set collected in the NHANES 1999-2004 study.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry 10/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The technique of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been used for several years in the research environment. Its ability to accurately and precisely measure lean, fat, and mineral composition in various body compartments has been well validated. Furthermore, the technique is widely available to clinical patients on existing DXA instruments throughout the world through the use of specific software packages and scanning algorithms. There have been few clear statements regarding the clinical indications for body composition measurement in patients outside the research setting. This is in part because of the lack of specific documented interventions that would be affected by body composition test results, beyond usual clinical advice. We have examined a few of the most common, specific scenarios (HIV therapy, sarcopenia, bariatric surgery, obesity) and proposed indications for body composition assessment. We have also discussed contraindications to body composition testing.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry 09/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast density is strongly related to breast cancer risk, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown.
Associations of reproductive and menstrual characteristics with breast density measured by magnetic resonance imaging were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 176 healthy women, 25-29 years old, using linear mixed effects models.
Parity was significantly inversely associated with breast density. In multivariable adjusted models that included non-reproductive variables, mean percent dense breast volume (%DBV) decreased from 20.5 % in nulliparous women to 16.0 % in parous women, while mean absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) decreased from 85.3 to 62.5 cm(3). Breast density also was significantly inversely associated with the age women started using hormonal contraceptives, whereas it was significantly positively associated with duration of hormonal contraceptive use. In adjusted models, mean %DBV decreased from 21.7 % in women who started using hormones at 12-17 years of age to 14.7 % in those who started using hormones at 22-28 years of age, while mean ADBV decreased from 86.2 to 53.7 cm(3). The age at which women started using hormonal contraceptives and duration of hormone use were inversely correlated, and mean %DBV increased from 15.8 % in women who used hormones for not more than 2.0 years to 22.0 % in women who used hormones for more than 8 years, while mean ADBV increased from 61.9 to 90.4 cm(3) over this interval.
Breast density in young women is inversely associated with parity and the age women started using hormonal contraceptives but positively associated with duration of hormone use.
Cancer Causes and Control 08/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Percent mammographic density (PMD) adjusted for age and BMI is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer and is known to be approximately 60 percent heritable. Here we report a finding of an association between genetic ancestry and adjusted PMD. METHODS: We selected self-identified Caucasian women in the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute Cohort whose screening mammograms placed them in the top or bottom quintiles of age- and body mass index-adjusted PMD. Our final data set included 474 women with the highest adjusted PMD and 469 with the lowest genotyped on the Illumina 1M platform. Principal component analysis (PCA) and identity-by-descent (IBD) analyses allowed us to infer the women's genetic ancestry and correlate it with adjusted PMD. RESULTS: Women of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, as defined by the first principal component (PC1) of PCA and identity-by-descent analyses, represented approximately 15 percent of the sample. Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, defined by PC1, was associated with higher adjusted PMD (p = 0.004). Using multivariate regression to adjust for epidemiologic factors associated with PMD, including age at parity and use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, did not attenuate the association. CONCLUSION: Women of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry based on genetic analysis are more likely to have high age- and BMI-adjusted PMD. Ashkenazi Jews may have a unique set of genetic variants or environmental risk factors that increase mammographic density.
Breast cancer research: BCR 05/2013; 15(3):R40. · 5.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting is a consequence of many primary conditions including sarcopenia, cachexia, osteoporosis, HIV/AIDS, and chronic kidney disease. Unfortunately, there is not a clinically accessible method to measure total body protein, which is the functional mass of muscle. OBJECTIVE: We sought to derive a simple method to measure total body protein by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioimpedance analysis (BIA). DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed a clinical convenience sample of individuals with numerous metabolic conditions from the Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia, who had a concurrent protein measure by using neutron activation analysis-derived protein (NAA-TBPro), water measure by using BIA, and whole-body DXA scan. The study was split into calibration and validation data sets by using simple random sampling stratified by sex, BMI category, and age decade. We generated a protein estimate direct-calibration protein (DC-TBPro) derived from BIA water, bone mass, and body volume. We compared NAA-TBPro with DC-TBPro and 2 protein estimates from the literature, one that used the DC-TBPro equation with fixed coefficients [4-compartment Lohman method for analysis of total body protein (4CL-TBPro)] and another that used fat-free mass, age, and sex [Wang equation-derived protein (W-TBPro)]. RESULTS: A total of 187 participants [119 women; mean (±SD) age: 37.0 ± 15.4 y; mean (±SD) BMI (in kg/m(2)) 24.5 ± 7.7] were included. When plotted against NAA-TBPro, DC-TBPro had the highest correlation [coefficient of determination (R(2)) = 0.87], lowest root mean squared error (RMSE; 0.87 kg), and fewest outliers compared with 4CL-TBPro (R(2) = 0.75; RMSE = 1.22 kg) and W-TBPro (R(2) = 0.80; RMSE = 1.10 kg). CONCLUSIONS: A simple method to measure total body protein by using a DXA system and BIA unit was developed and compared with NAA as proof of principle. With additional validation, this method could provide a clinically useful way to monitor muscle-wasting conditions.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context:High bone mass (HBM), detected in 0.2% of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, is characterized by raised body mass index, the basis for which is unclear.Objective:To investigate why body mass index is elevated in individuals with HBM, we characterized body composition and examined whether differences could be explained by bone phenotypes, eg, bone mass and/or bone turnover.Design, Setting, and Participants:We conducted a case-control study of 153 cases with unexplained HBM recruited from 4 UK centers by screening 219 088 DXA scans. A total of 138 first-degree relatives (of whom 51 had HBM) and 39 spouses were also recruited. Unaffected individuals served as controls.Main Outcome Measures:We measured fat mass, by DXA, and bone turnover markers.Results:Among women, fat mass was inversely related to age in controls (P = .01), but not in HBM cases (P = .96) in whom mean fat mass was 8.9 [95% CI 4.7, 13.0] kg higher compared with controls (fully adjusted mean difference, P < .001). Increased fat mass in male HBM cases was less marked (gender interaction P = .03). Compared with controls, lean mass was also increased in female HBM cases (by 3.3 [1.2, 5.4] kg; P < .002); however, lean mass increases were less marked than fat mass increases, resulting in 4.5% lower percentage lean mass in HBM cases (P < .001). Osteocalcin was also lower in female HBM cases compared with controls (by 2.8 [0.1, 5.5] μg/L; P = .04). Differences in fat mass were fully attenuated after hip bone mineral density (BMD) adjustment (P = .52) but unchanged after adjustment for bone turnover (P < .001), whereas the greater hip BMD in female HBM cases was minimally attenuated by fat mass adjustment (P < .001).Conclusions:HBM is characterized by a marked increase in fat mass in females, statistically explained by their greater BMD, but not by markers of bone turnover.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 01/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Total body volume is an important health metric used to measure body density, shape, and multicompartmental body composition but is currently only available through underwater weighing or air displacement plethysmography (ADP). The objective of this investigation was to derive an accurate body volume from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-reported measures for advanced body composition models. Volunteers received a whole body DXA scan and an ADP measure at baseline (N=25) and 6mo (N=22). Baseline measures were used to calibrate body volume from the reported DXA masses of fat, lean, and bone mineral content. A second population (N=385) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to estimate the test-retest precision of regional (arms, legs, head, and trunk) and total body volumes. Overall, we found that DXA-volume was highly correlated to ADP-volume (R(2)=0.99). The 6-mo change in total DXA-volume was highly correlated to change in ADP-volume (R(2)=0.98). The root mean square percent coefficient of variation precision of DXA-volume measures ranged from 1.1% (total) to 3.2% (head). We conclude that the DXA-volume method can measure body volume accurately and precisely, can be used in body composition models, could be an independent health indicator, and is useful as a prospective or retrospective biomarker of body composition.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry 01/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been many scientific advances in measurement of fat and lean body mass as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) convened a Position Development Conference (PDC) on the use of DXA for body composition measurement. Previously, no guidelines to the use of DXA for body composition existed. The recommendations pertain to clinically relevant issues regarding DXA indications of use, acquisition, analysis, quality control, interpretation, and reporting were addressed. The topics and questions for consideration were developed by the ISCD Board of Directors and the Scientific Advisory Committee and were designed to address the needs of clinical practitioners. Three Task Forces were created and assigned these questions and asked to conduct comprehensive literature reviews. The Task Forces included participants from 6 countries and a variety of interests including academic institutions, private clinics, and industry. Reports with proposed Position Statements were then presented to an international panel of experts with backgrounds in DXA and bone densitometry and a variety of fields that use body composition measures. The PDC was held in Tampa, FL, contemporaneously with the Annual Meeting of the ISCD, March 21 through March 23, 2013. This report describes the methodology of the 2013 ISCD Body Composition PDC and summarizes the results. Three separate articles in this issue will detail the rationale, discussion, and additional research topics for each question the Task Forces addressed.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry 01/2013; 16(4):489-95. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body shape is a known risk factor for diabetes and mortality, but the methods estimating body shape, BMI and waist circumference are crude. We determined whether a novel body shape measure, trunk to leg volume ratio, was independently associated with diabetes and mortality.
Data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 1999-2004, a study representative of the US population, were used to generate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived trunk to leg volume ratio and determine its associations to diabetes, metabolic covariates, and mortality by BMI category, gender, and race/ethnicity group.
The prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes increased with age, BMI, triglycerides, blood pressure, and decreased HDL level. After adjusting for covariates, the corresponding fourth to first quartile trunk to leg volume ratio odds ratios (OR) were 6.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9-9.6) for diabetes, 3.9 (95% CI, 3.0-5.2) for high triglycerides, 1.8 (95% CI, 1.6-2.1) for high blood pressure, 3.0 (95% CI, 2.4-3.8) for low HDL, 3.6 (95% CI, 2.8-4.7) for metabolic syndrome, and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.20-2.60) for mortality. Additionally, trunk to leg volume ratio was the strongest independent measure associated with diabetes (P<0.001), even after adjusting for BMI and waist circumference. Even among those with normal BMI, those in the highest quartile of trunk to leg volume ratio had a higher likelihood of death (5.5%) than those in the lowest quartile (0.2%). Overall, trunk to leg volume ratio is driven by competing mechanisms of changing adiposity and lean mass.
A high ratio of trunk to leg volume showed a strong association to diabetes and mortality that was independent of total and regional fat distributions. This novel body shape measure provides additional information regarding central adiposity and appendicular wasting to better stratify individuals at risk for diabetes and mortality, even among those with normal BMI.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e68716. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of body composition increasingly are used in the evaluation of clinical disorders, but there has been little guidance on how to effectively report these measures. Uniformity in reporting of body composition measures will aid in the diagnosis of clinical disorders such as obesity, sarcopenia, and lipodystrophy. At the 2013 International Society for Clinical Densitometry Position Development Conference on body composition, the reporting section recommended that all DXA body composition reports should contain parameters of body mass index, bone mineral density, BMC, total mass, total lean mass, total fat mass, and percent fat mass. The inclusion of additional measures of adiposity and lean mass are optional, including visceral adipose tissue, appendicular lean mass index, android/gynoid percent fat ratio, trunk to leg fat mass ratio, lean mass index, and fat mass index. Within the United States, we recommend the use of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 body composition dataset as an age-, gender-, and race-specific reference and to calibrate BMC in 4-compartment models. Z-scores and percentiles of body composition measures may be useful for clinical interpretation if methods are used to adjust for non-normality. In particular, DXA body composition measures may be useful for risk-stratification of obese and sarcopenic patients, but there needs to be validation of thresholds to define obesity and sarcopenia. To summarize, these guidelines provide evidence-based standards for the reporting and clinical application of DXA-based measures of body composition.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry 01/2013; 16(4):508-19. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) convenes a Position Development Conference (PDC) every 2-3 yr to make recommendations for guidelines and standards in the field of musculoskeletal measurement and assessment. The recommendations pertain to clinically relevant issues regarding the acquisition, quality control, interpretation, and reporting of various aspects of musculoskeletal health metrics. Topics for consideration are developed by the ISCD Board of Directors and the Scientific Advisory Committee. For the 2013 PDC, body composition analysis was a central topic area for the first time and considered timely because of the scientific advances in measurement of fat and lean body mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Indications for DXA and vertebral fracture assessment and use of reference data to calculate bone mineral density T-scores were also updated. Task Forces for each of these areas were assigned questions of relevance to a clinical audience and asked to conduct comprehensive literature reviews. Reports with proposed Position Statements were then presented to an international panel of experts. The Expert Panel included representatives of the International Osteoporosis Foundation, the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, the National Osteoporosis Foundation, Osteoporosis Canada, and the North American Menopause Society. The PDC was held in Tampa, FL, contemporaneously with the Annual Meeting of the ISCD, March 21 through March 23, 2013. This report describes the methodology of the 2013 ISCD PDC and summarizes the results of the 2013 ISCD PDC for vertebral fracture assessment/DXA and National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) Reference Database Task Forces. A separate article in this issue will summarize the results of the Body Composition Analysis Task Forces.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry 01/2013; 16(4):455-66. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical scores of mammographic breast density are highly subjective. Automated technologies for mammography exist to quantify breast density objectively, but the technique that most accurately measures the quantity of breast fibroglandular tissue is not known.
To compare the agreement of three automated mammographic techniques for measuring volumetric breast density with a quantitative volumetric MRI-based technique in a screening population.
Women were selected from the UCSF Medical Center screening population that had received both a screening MRI and digital mammogram within one year of each other, had Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessments of normal or benign finding, and no history of breast cancer or surgery. Agreement was assessed of three mammographic techniques (Single-energy X-ray Absorptiometry [SXA], Quantra, and Volpara) with MRI for percent fibroglandular tissue volume, absolute fibroglandular tissue volume, and total breast volume.
Among 99 women, the automated mammographic density techniques were correlated with MRI measures with R(2) values ranging from 0.40 (log fibroglandular volume) to 0.91 (total breast volume). Substantial agreement measured by kappa statistic was found between all percent fibroglandular tissue measures (0.72 to 0.63), but only moderate agreement for log fibroglandular volumes. The kappa statistics for all percent density measures were highest in the comparisons of the SXA and MRI results. The largest error source between MRI and the mammography techniques was found to be differences in measures of total breast volume.
Automated volumetric fibroglandular tissue measures from screening digital mammograms were in substantial agreement with MRI and if associated with breast cancer could be used in clinical practice to enhance risk assessment and prevention.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81653. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In preparation for the International Society for Clinical Densitometry Position Development Conference of 2013 in Tampa, Florida, Task Force 2 was created as 1 of 3 task forces in the area of body composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The assignment was to review the literature, summarize the relevant findings, and formulate positions covering (1) accuracy and precision assessment, (2) acquisition of DXA body composition measures in patients, and (3) considerations regarding analysis and repeatability of measures. There were 6 primary questions proposed to the task force by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry board and expert panel. Based on a series of systematic reviews, 14 new positions were developed, which are intended to augment and define good clinical practice in quantitative assessment of body composition by DXA.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry 01/2013; 16(4):520-36. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To examine risk factors for fracture in a racially diverse cohort of healthy children in the US. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1470 healthy children, aged 6-17 years, underwent yearly evaluations of height, weight, body mass index, skeletal age, sexual maturation, calcium intake, physical activity levels, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone and fat measurements for up to 6 years. Fracture information was obtained at each annual visit, and risk factors for fracture were examined using the time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The overall fracture incidence was 0.034 fracture per person-year with 212 children reporting a total of 257 fractures. Being white (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.1), being male (HR = 1.8), and having skeletal age of 10-14 years (HR = 2.2) were the strongest risk factors for fracture (all P ≤ .001). Increased sports participation (HR = 1.4), lower body fat percentage (HR = 0.97), and previous fracture in white girls (HR = 2.1) were also significant risk factors (all P ≤ .04). Overall, fracture risk decreased with higher DXA z scores, except in white boys, who had increased fracture risk with higher DXA z scores (HR = 1.7, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Boys and girls of European descent had double the fracture risk of children from other backgrounds, suggesting that the genetic predisposition to fractures seen in elderly adults also manifests in children.
The Journal of pediatrics 09/2012; · 4.02 Impact Factor