[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) is the most common cause of acute wheezing exacerbations in young children presenting to hospital, but its impact on subsequent respiratory illnesses has not been defined. Objective: To determine whether acute wheezing exacerbations due to HRV-C are associated with increased hospital attendances due to acute respiratory illnesses (ARI). Methods: Clinical information and nasal samples were collected prospectively on 197 children under five years presenting to hospital with an acute wheezing episode. Information on hospital attendances with an ARI before and after recruitment was subsequently obtained. Results: HRV was the most common virus identified at recruitment (n=135 (68.5%)). From the 120 (88.9%) samples that underwent typing, HRV-C was the most common HRV species identified, present in 81 (67.5%) samples. Children with an HRV-related wheezing illness had an increased risk of readmission with an ARI (RR: 3.44, 95%CI: 1.17-10.17; p=0.03) compared with those infected with any other virus. HRV-C, compared with any other virus, was associated with an increased risk of a respiratory hospital admission prior to (49.4% versus 27.3%, respectively, p=0.004) and within twelve months following (34.6% versus 17.0%, p=0.01) recruitment. Risk for subsequent ARI admissions was further increased in atopic subjects (RR: 6.82, 95%CI: 2.16-21.55; p=0.001). Admission risks were not increased for other HRV species. Conclusion: HRV-C related wheezing illnesses were associated with an increased risk of prior and subsequent hospital respiratory admissions. These associations are consistent with HRV-C causing recurrent severe wheezing illnesses in children who are more susceptible to ARIs.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2013; · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human rhinovirus (HRV) species C (HRV-C) have been associated with frequent and severe acute lower respiratory infections and asthma in hospitalized children. The prevalence of HRV-C among healthy children and whether this varies with ethnicity is unknown.
To describe the prevalence of HRV species and their associations with demographic, environmental and socioeconomic factors in healthy Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children.
Respiratory viruses and bacteria were identified in 1006 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from a cohort of 79 Aboriginal and 88 non-Aboriginal Western Australian children before 2 years of age. HRV-positive nasopharyngeal aspirates were typed for HRV species and genotypes. Longitudinal growth models incorporating generalized estimating equations were used to investigate associations between HRV species and potential risk factors.
Of the 159 typed specimens, we identified 83 (52.2%) human rhinovirus species A (HRV-A), 26 (16.4%), human rhinovirus species B and 50 (31.4%) HRV-C. HRV-C was associated with upper respiratory symptoms in Aboriginal (odds ratio, 3.77; 95% confidence interval:1.05-13.55) and non-Aboriginal children (odds ratio, 5.85; 95% confidence interval: 2.33-14.66). HRV-A and HRV-C were associated with carriage of respiratory bacteria. In Aboriginal children, HRV-A was more common in the summer and in those whose mothers were employed prior to delivery. In non-Aboriginal children, day-care attendance and exclusive breast-feeding at age 6-8 weeks were associated with detection of HRV-A, and gestational smoking with detection of HRV-C.
Factors associated with the presence of HRV differ between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. In contrast to HRV-A, HRV-C is associated with upper respiratory symptoms suggesting that HRV-C is likely to be implicated in respiratory illness.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the influence of viral respiratory infection (VRI) on treatment response in acute asthma in children.
A total of 218 children (mean age, 6.6 years) with acute asthma were recruited. Symptoms were recorded, an asthma severity score was determined, and whenever possible, a per-nasal aspirate was obtained for detection of viruses. Each child's response to inhaled β(2)-agonists was assessed after 6, 12, and 24 hours.
The 168 children with VRI symptoms received more treatment with inhaled β(2)-agonists after 6 hours (P = .010), 12 hours (P = .002), and 24 hours (P = .0005) compared with the 50 children without such symptoms. Asthma severity did not differ between the 2 groups. A per-nasal aspirate was obtained from 77% of the children. The most frequently identified virus was rhinovirus (61.4%). Among children with symptoms of a VRI, those with rhinovirus had an impaired response to β(2)-agonists at 6 hours (P = .032).
Children with acute asthma and symptoms of VRI respond less effectively to β(2)-agonists after 6, 12, or 24 hours and thus may benefit from more intense therapy and monitoring.
The Journal of pediatrics 08/2011; 160(1):82-7. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new and potentially more pathogenic group of human rhinovirus (HRV), group C (HRVC), has recently been discovered. We hypothesised that HRVC would be present in children with acute asthma and cause more severe attacks than other viruses or HRV groups. Children with acute asthma (n = 128; age 2-16 yrs) were recruited on presentation to an emergency department. Asthma exacerbation severity was assessed, and respiratory viruses and HRV strains were identified in a nasal aspirate. The majority of the children studied had moderate-to-severe asthma (85.2%) and 98.9% were admitted to hospital. HRV was detected in 87.5% and other respiratory viruses in 14.8% of children, most of whom also had HRV. HRVC was present in the majority of children with acute asthma (59.4%) and associated with more severe asthma. Children with HRVC (n = 76) had higher asthma severity scores than children whose HRV infection was HRVA or HRVB only (n = 34; p = 0.018), and all other children (n = 50; p = 0.016). Of the 19 children with a non-HRV virus, 13 had HRV co-infections, seven of these being HRVC. HRVC accounts for the majority of asthma attacks in children presenting to hospital and causes more severe attacks than previously known HRV groups and other viruses.
European Respiratory Journal 05/2011; 37(5):1037-42. · 6.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glutathione S-transferase enzymes (GSTs) play an important role in the detoxification of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which contributes to airway inflammation, a key component of asthma. Genetic variation in GST genes may influence individuals' ability to detoxify environmental pollutants.
To examine the role of polymorphisms in GSTP1 (Ile105Val and Ala114Val), alone and in combination with ETS exposure, on atopy and asthma severity.
GSTP1 Ile105Val and Ala114Val were genotyped and ETS exposure was assessed by parental questionnaire, which was validated by urinary cotinine measurements. Associations between ETS exposure, GSTP1 polymorphisms, and their interaction on atopy and asthma severity were investigated.
For the functional GSTP1 105 SNP, those with the Ile/Ile genotype had odds for atopy of 2.77 (p = .054) when assessed by genotype alone, which increased to 9.02 (p = .050) when ETS was included, relative to individuals with other genotypes. Likewise, compared to children with other GSTP1 114 genotypes, those with Ala/Ala genotype had a 5.47-fold (p = .002) increased risk of atopy (p = .020) when assessed by genotype alone, increasing to 9.17-fold when ETS was included. The 105 Ile/Ile individuals all had the AA (105 Ile/Ile and 114 Ala/Ala) haplotype group; therefore, the odds for atopy were the same. Individuals without any *C haplotype (105 Val and 114 Val allele) who were exposed to ETS had a 9.17-fold increased risk of atopy when compared with individuals with at least one *C haplotype and not exposed to ETS (p = .020).
There were significant interactions between GSTP1 SNPs, atopy, and ETS exposure in this cohort.
Journal of Asthma 11/2010; 47(9):1049-56. · 1.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic and environmental influences and their interactions are central to asthma pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different macro-environments on asthma genotype-phenotype associations in two geographically separated populations with common ancestry.
To accomplish this, two unselected populations of Inuit were recruited, one living in Greenland (n = 618) and the other in Denmark (n = 739). Subjects were genotyped for CD14 C-159T, SCGB1A1 A38G, ADRB2 Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu. The resulting genetic data were analysed for relationships with asthma-related parameters including lung function, ever asthma, atopy, rhinitis and dermatitis.
The results showed contrasting magnitude and direction of genetic associations between the two geographically separate Inuit populations. In Greenland, the ADRB2 16Arg allele was associated with male-specific lower lung function, but in Denmark the same allele was associated with male-specific higher lung function. This allele was also associated with higher incidence of ever asthma in Denmark but not in Greenland. The SCGB1A1 38A allele was associated with lower rhinitis prevalence in Greenland but not in Denmark.
These associations suggest that environment interacts with candidate asthma genes to modulate asthma pathogenesis in the Inuit.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe asthma exacerbations in children requiring hospitalization are typically associated with viral infection and occur almost exclusively among atopics, but the significance of these comorbidities is unknown. We hypothesized that underlying interactions between immunoinflammatory pathways related to responses to aeroallergen and virus are involved, and that evidence of these interactions is detectable in circulating cells during exacerbations. To address this hypothesis we used a genomics-based approach involving profiling of PBMC subpopulations collected during exacerbation vs convalescence by microarray and flow cytometry. We demonstrate that circulating T cells manifest the postactivated "exhausted" phenotype during exacerbations, whereas monocyte/dendritic cell populations display up-regulated CCR2 expression accompanied by phenotypic changes that have strong potential for enhancing local inflammation after their recruitment to the atopic lung. Notably, up-regulation of FcepsilonR1, which is known to markedly amplify capacity for allergen uptake/presentation to Th2 effector cells via IgE-mediated allergen capture, and secondarily programming of IL-4/IL-13-dependent IL-13R(+) alternatively activated macrophages that have been demonstrated in experimental settings to be a potent source of autocrine IL-13 production. We additionally show that this disease-associated activation profile can be reproduced in vitro by cytokine exposure of atopic monocytes, and furthermore that IFN-alpha can exert both positive and negative roles in the process. Our findings suggest that respiratory viral infection in atopic children may initiate an atopy-dependent cascade that amplifies and sustains airway inflammation initiated by innate antiviral immunity via harnessing underlying atopy-associated mechanisms. These interactions may account for the unique susceptibility of atopics to severe viral-induced asthma exacerbations.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2009; 183(4):2793-800. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are pro-inflammatory mediators with increasing evidence for a role in childhood acute asthma. This study examined the influence of polymorphisms in cysLT pathway genes on urinary leukotriene E(4) (uLTE(4)) levels and clinical status in acute asthmatic children. Children aged 2-16 years were recruited during an asthma attack (n=205). Where possible, asthma severity scores were assigned, ALOX5AP G-336A, ALOX5 G-1708A, LTC4S A-444C and G-1072A, GPX4 C718T, and CYSTLTR1 T927C genotypes were determined and uLTE(4) was measured in acute and convalescent samples. uLTE(4) levels were higher acutely compared with convalescence (acute GM: 115.7pg/mg creatinine; 95% CI 88.6-151.1, convalescence GM: 66.4pg/mg creatinine; 95% CI 51.5-85.6; n=50 paired samples, p=0.003) and paired sample analysis showed genotype-specific effects with significantly increased uLTE(4) for LTC(4)S-444AA (acute GM: 127.9pg/mg creatinine; 95% CI 91.8-178.3, convalescence GM: 68.2pg/mg creatinine; 95% CI 50.5-92.0; n=32, p=0.002), LTC(4)S-1072 GG (acute GM: 126.7pg/mg creatinine; 95% CI 95.4-168.3, convalescence GM: 78.9pg/mg creatinine; 95% CI 59.7-104.1; n=39, p=0.019) and CYSLTR1 927 TT/T_ (acute GM: 96.8pg/mg creatinine; 95% CI 73.8-126.9, convalescence GM: 62.4pg/mg creatinine; 95% CI 46.8-83.3; n=28, p=0.036) but not AC/CC, GA/AA, or TC/CC/C_, respectively. When we compared the allele frequencies of the CYSLTR1 SNP between asthmatics and non-asthmatics, the 927C allele was found to be a risk allele for asthma (OR=2.13, 95% CI: 1.06-4.26, p=0.033). Genotypes were not associated with acute or convalescent uLTE(4) levels alone and neither the SNPs nor uLTE(4) correlated with acute asthma severity. Leukotriene pathway gene polymorphisms may influence the magnitude of cysLT production during an attack, yet their influence alone may not be substantial enough to alter the severity of exacerbations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic sensitization to the house dust mite (HDM) is associated with altered antibody responses to the nasopharyngeal colonizing bacterium Haemophilus influenzae and children admitted to the emergency department for asthma exacerbation have reduced IgG responses to HDM allergens.
To investigate anti-bacterial and anti-allergen antibody responses during convalescence from asthma exacerbation and differences found in exacerbations associated with and without viral infection.
IgE antibodies to the P6 bacterial antigen increased in 60% of sera during convalescence and for many children achieved titres as high as IgE titres to allergens. In contrast IgE anti-HDM titres declined during convalescence. The anti-bacterial IgE titres were the same in subjects with and without virus infection while the anti-HDM IgE declined more rapidly in virus-infected subjects. IgG titres to the major HDM allergens showed no consistent increase and the overall IgG anti-HDM titres even declined in subjects without a virus infection. Anti-bacterial IgG antibodies in contrast to IgE did not change. Patients with frequent episodic or persistent asthma had similar IgE anti-bacterial titres to patients with infrequent asthma during the acute phase, although they had reduced IgG titres to both the bacteria and the HDM.
During the period following an acute exacerbation of asthma there was a marked and specific increase in anti-bacterial IgE compared with a reduced IgE response to HDM. This provides further support for the concept of T-helper type 2 responses to bacterial antigens playing a role in asthma pathogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ST2 gene is a member of the interleukin-1 receptor family and is located on chromosome 2q12, an area of the genome that has been associated with asthma. The soluble product of the ST2 gene, serum ST2 (sST2), has previously been shown to be elevated in adult asthmatic patients. This study investigated the potential role of ST2 in children with acute asthma. Children aged 2-16 years (n = 186) were recruited on presentation with acute asthma in the emergency department. Blood was obtained on presentation and during convalescence. Variables assessed included sST2 levels, a comprehensive assembly of clinical parameters and two polymorphisms in the ST2 gene, -26999G/A, located in the distal promoter region, and ala78glu polymorphism, on exon 3. The A allele of the -26999G/A polymorphism occurred more frequently in asthmatics compared with an unselected control group (P = 0.031). Serum ST2 levels were substantially higher during acute asthma compared with levels after the attack: 0.29 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 0.23-0.36) and 0.14 ng/ml (0.12-0.17), respectively (P = 0.001) and were inversely related to eosinophil counts during an acute asthma attack (P = 0.002). The -26999AA genotype, as well as the AC haplotype, was associated with asthma severity scores (P = 0.05 and 0.02) compared with the -26999GA and GG genotypes. Serum ST2 levels were not associated with any of the studied genotypes or haplotypes. The observed associations of ST2 genotypes and haplotypes with acute asthma and asthma severity scores as well as the phenotypic differences associated with ST2 polymorphisms suggest that ST2 may play a role in the pathophysiology of asthma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the beta(2)-adrenoceptor gene, on the response to inhaled beta(2)-agonists in children with acute asthma. We hypothesised that children with polymorphisms that generate enhanced receptor downregulation in vitro, Gly16 and Gln27, would have a slower response to beta(2)-agonist therapy during acute asthma. One hundred and forty-eight children with acute asthma were recruited and genotyped for beta(2)Arg16Gly and beta(2)Gln27Glu. For Gln27Glu, individuals Gln27Gln took longest to stretch out to 1, 2 and 4 hourly beta(2)-agonists, followed by heterozygotes who were intermediate and Glu27Glu who responded most rapidly (1 hourly: 2.6 hr vs. 2.0 vs. 1.4, p = 0.02; 2 hourly: 10.6 hr vs. 10.7 vs. 6.8, p = 0.07; 4 hourly: 29.8 hr vs. 28.5 vs. 24.3, p = 0.30). The ability to prospectively identify children who respond less effectively to beta (2)-agonists during an acute asthma attack has the potential to allow the generation of genotype-specific treatment pathways.
Journal of Asthma 07/2008; 45(5):383-8. · 1.85 Impact Factor