[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine (OPLL) is characterized by the replacement of ligament tissues with ectopic bone formation, and this result is strongly affected by genetic and local factors. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of rs2273073 (T/G) and rs235768 (A/T) of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) gene which are associated with OPLL have been reported in our previous report. In this study, we confirmed the connection in 18 case samples analysis of BMP2 gene in OPLL patients; additionally, it was also shown from the OPLL patients with ligament tissues that enchondral ossification and expression of BMP2 were significantly higher compared with the non-OPLL patients by histological examination, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we studied the effect of SNPs in cell model. The C3H10T1/2 cells with different BMP2 gene variants were constructed and then subjected to uniaxial cyclic stretch (0.5 Hz, 10% stretch). In the presence of mechanical stress, the expression of BMP2 protein in C3H10T1/2 cells transfected by BMP2 (rs2273073 (T/G)) and BMP2 (rs2273073 (T/G), rs235768 (A/T)) were significantly higher than the corresponding static groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggested that BMP2 gene variant of rs2273073 (T/G) could not only increase cell susceptibility to bone transformation similar to pre-OPLL change, but also increase the sensibility to mechanical stress which might play an important role during the progression of OPLL.
PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106598. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106598 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the density and distribution of nerve endings and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in lumbar facet joints of patients with low back pain.
Fifteen patients without low back pain were selected as control group (group A). Facet joint samples in group A were obtained during the operation or lumbar spinal canal tumor they suffered from. Those patients with low back pain were divided into three groups according to their different origins of pain, such as not from facet joint (group B, 15 patients) ,from facet joint only (group C, 20 patients), or from facet joint partially (group D, 20 patients). Different origins were determined by VAS after facet joint block. The density and distribution of nerve ending and neuropeptide in the capsular tissues were analyzed by a modified gold chloride staining and immunochemistry respectively.
Compared with the ones in group A and B, the fact joints in group C and D were more inclined to be degenerated and got more nerve endings. NPY was expressed mainly in the facet joint of patients with low back pain in group C and D. In addition, there was a significant relationship between the distribution of nerve endings and NPY expression,while none of them were related with MRI Fujiwara grade of facet joint.
These results suggest that the number of mechanoreceptors, neural sprouting and secreted peptides in the facet joint capsules vary with the change of mechanical or nociceptive stimulation, which may promote the development of low back pain in return.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been reported to enhance proliferation and to alter protein production in various kinds of cells. In the present study, we measured the neurites length after LIPUS treatment to define the effectiveness of LIPUS stimulation on neurons, and then we examined the acticity of GSK-3beta to study the intracellular mechanism of neurite's outgrowth.
LIPUS was applied to cultured primary rat cortical neurons for 5 minutes every day with spatial- and temporal average intensities (SATA) of 10 mW/cm(2), a pulse width of 200 microseconds, a repetition rate of 1.5 KHz, and an operation frequency of 1 MHz. Neurons were photographed on the third day after LIPUS treatment and harvested at third, seventh, and tenth days for immunoblot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis.
Morphology change showed that neurite extension was enhanced by LIPUS. There was also a remarkable decrease of proteins, including p-Akt, p-GSK-3beta, and p-CRMP-2, observed on the seventh and tenth days, and of GSK-3beta mRNA expression, observed on the seventh day, in neurons treated with LIPUS.
LIPUS can enhance elongation of neurites and it is possible through the decreased expression of GSK-3beta.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is generally known that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) accelerates peripheral nerve tissue regeneration. However, the precise cellular mechanism involved is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine how the Schwann cells respond directly to LIPUS stimuli. Thus, we investigated the effect of LIPUS on cell proliferation, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in rat Schwann cells. Schwann cells were enzymatically isolated from postnatal 1-3 day rat sciatic nerve tissue and cultured in the six-well plate. The ultrasound was applied at a frequency of 1 MHz and an intensity of 100 mW/cm(2) spatial average temporal average for 5 minutes/day. The control group was cultured in the same way but without the administration of ultrasound. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that more than 98% of the experimental and control cells were positive for S-100, NT-3, and BDNF. With 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay, the stimulated cells also exhibited an increase in the rate of cell proliferation on days 4, 7, 10, and 14. Further investigation found that mRNA expression of NT-3 was significantly upregulated in experimental groups compared with the control 14 days after the LIPUS stimulation (the ratio of NT-3/beta-actin was 0.56 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.09, P < 0.01), whereas the mRNA expression of BDNF was significantly downregulated in experimental groups compared with the control (the ratio of BDNF/beta-actin was 0.51 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.60 +/- 0.08, P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that the application of LIPUS promotes cell proliferation and NT-3 gene expression in Schwann cells, and involved in the alteration of BDNF gene expression.