Jeffrey P Lane

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (7)18.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Students spend a large portion of their day in classrooms which may be a source of mold exposure. We examined the diversity and concentrations of molds in inner-city schools and described differences between classrooms within the same school. Classroom airborne mold spores, collected over a 2 day period, were measured twice during the school year by direct microscopy. There were 180 classroom air samples collected from 12 schools. Mold was present in 100% of classrooms. Classrooms within the same school had differing mold levels and mold diversity scores. The total mold per classroom was 176.6 ± 4.2 spores/m3 (geometric mean ± standard deviation) and ranged from 11.2 to 16,288.5 spores/m3. Mold diversity scores for classroom samples ranged from 1 to 19 (7.7 ± 3.5). The classroom accounted for the majority of variance (62%) in the total mold count, and for the majority of variance (56%) in the mold diversity score versus the school. The species with the highest concentrations and found most commonly included Cladosporium (29.3 ± 4.2 spores/m3), Penicillium/Aspergillus (15.0 ± 5.4 spores/m3), smut spores (12.6 ± 4.0 spores/m3), and basidiospores (6.6 ± 7.1 spores/m3). Our study found that the school is a source of mold exposure, but particularly the classroom microenvironment varies in quantity of spores and species among classrooms within the same school. We also verified that visible mold may be a predictor for higher mold spore counts. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of mold exposure relative to asthma morbidity in sensitized and non-sensitized asthmatic children.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 11/2013; 24(7):697-703. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most studies of indoor allergens have focused on the home environment. However, schools may be an important site of allergen exposure for children with asthma. We compared school allergen exposure to home exposure in a cohort of children with asthma. Correlations between settled dust and airborne allergen levels in classrooms were examined. Settled dust and airborne samples from 12 inner-city schools were analyzed for indoor allergens using multiplex array technology (MARIA). School samples were linked to students with asthma enrolled in the School Inner-City Asthma Study (SICAS). Settled dust samples from students' bedrooms were analyzed similarly. From schools, 229 settled dust and 197 airborne samples were obtained. From homes, 118 settled dust samples were obtained. Linear mixed regression models of log-transformed variables showed significantly higher settled dust levels of mouse, cat and dog allergens in schools than homes (545% higher for Mus m 1, estimated absolute difference 0.55 μg/g, p < 0.0001; 198% higher for Fel d 1, estimated absolute difference 0.13 μg/g, p = 0.0033; and 144% higher for Can f 1, estimated absolute difference 0.05 μg/g, p = 0.0008). Airborne and settled dust Mus m 1 levels in classrooms were moderately correlated (r = 0.48; p < 0.0001). There were undetectable to very low levels of cockroach and dust mite allergens in both homes and schools. Mouse allergen levels in schools were substantial. In general, cat and dog allergen levels were low, but detectable, and were higher in schools. Aerosolization of mouse allergen in classrooms may be a significant exposure for students. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of indoor allergen exposure in schools on asthma morbidity in students with asthma.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 06/2012; 23(6):543-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endotoxins are stimulators of the immune system and, despite their potential to protect against allergy, have been associated with early wheezing and asthma morbidity. To compare inner-city school endotoxin exposure with home endotoxin exposure in children with asthma. Students with asthma were recruited from 12 urban elementary schools. Settled and airborne dust samples, linked to enrolled students, were collected from school classrooms, gymnasiums, and cafeterias twice during the academic year. For comparison, settled dust was collected once from the bedrooms of students with asthma. Two hundred twenty-nine school settled dust samples and 118 bedroom settled dust samples were collected and analyzed for endotoxin. The median endotoxin concentration for school samples was 13.4 EU/mg (range, 0.7-360.7 EU/mg) and for home samples was 7.0 EU/mg (range = LLOD-843.0 EU/mg). The median concentration within each individual school varied from 6.6 EU/mg to 24.0 EU/mg. One hundred four students with asthma had matched classroom and bedroom endotoxin exposure measurements performed in the same season and demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of endotoxin in the students' classrooms (mean log value, 1.13 vs 0.99, P = .04). The median of the classrooms was 12.5 EU/mg compared with their bedrooms, with a median of 7.0 EU/mg. Within the school environment, no significant difference was seen between the fall and spring samples (mean log value 1.14 vs 1.09; P = .35). Inner-city children with asthma were exposed to higher concentrations of endotoxin in their classrooms as compared with their bedrooms. Further studies are needed to evaluate school endotoxin exposure as a factor in asthma morbidity.
    Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 06/2012; 108(6):418-22. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children spend a significant amount of time in school. Little is known about the role of allergen exposure in school environments and asthma morbidity. The School Inner-City Asthma Study (SICAS) is a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded prospective study evaluating the school/classroom-specific risk factors and asthma morbidity among urban children. This article describes the design, methods, and important lessons learned from this extensive investigation. A single center is recruiting 500 elementary school-aged children, all of whom attend inner-city metropolitan schools. The primary hypothesis is that exposure to common indoor allergens in the classroom will increase the risk of asthma morbidity in children with asthma, even after controlling for home allergen exposures. The protocol includes screening surveys of entire schools and baseline eligibility assessments obtained in the spring prior to the academic year. Extensive baseline clinical visits are being conducted among eligible children with asthma during the summer prior to the academic school year. Environmental classroom/school assessments including settled dust and air sampling for allergen, mold, air pollution, and inspection data are collected twice during the academic school year and one home dust sample linked to the enrolled student. Clinical outcomes are measured every 3 months during the academic school year. The overall goal of SICAS is to complete the first study of its kind to better understand school-specific urban environmental factors on childhood asthma morbidity. We also discuss the unique challenges related to school-based urban research and lessons being learned from recruiting such a cohort.
    Journal of Asthma 12/2011; 48(10):1007-14. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 10/2011; 107(4):371-3. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association between allergens in schools and childhood asthma has not been well studied, particularly in the United States. To investigate allergen exposure in schools compared with homes with a specific focus on children with asthma. Dust samples were collected from 46 rooms in 4 urban elementary schools (northeastern United States) and from 38 student bedrooms. Samples were analyzed for cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), dust mites (Der f 1/Der p 1), and mouse urinary protein (MUP). Questionnaires identified students with physician-diagnosed asthma. Cat and dog allergens were detectable in most school samples (96% and 78%, respectively), but at low levels. Cockroach allergen was detectable in only 11% of school samples. Mouse allergen was detectable in 89% of school samples, with 68% having MUP levels greater than 0.5 microg/g. In contrast, MUP was detectable in only 26% of bedroom samples. Matched classroom and home samples from 23 asthmatic students showed higher geometric mean MUP levels in the classroom vs the home (6.45 microg/g vs 0.44 microg/g, P < .001). However, there were lower geometric mean dust mite (Der f 1) levels in the classroom vs the home (0.04 microg/g vs 0.66 microg/g, P < .001). There are significantly higher levels of MUP but lower levels of Der f 1 in schools vs homes. It is important to recognize that children with asthma may encounter varying levels of allergens in environments outside the home, such as schools.
    Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 03/2009; 102(2):125-30. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Christine A Rogers. 01/2008;