[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene transcription is controlled by transcriptional regulators acting with specific co-regulators to allow gene activation and repression. Here, we report the identification of the KRAB-containing zinc-finger transcriptional regulator, ZBRK1, as an interaction partner of the SCA2 gene product ataxin-2. Furthermore, we discovered that an elevated ZBRK1 level resulted in increased ataxin-2 levels, whereas interference on transcriptional and protein levels of ZBRK1 yielded reduced ataxin-2 levels, suggesting that a complex comprising ZBRK1 and ataxin-2 regulates SCA2 gene transcription. A bioinformatic analysis utilizing the known ZBRK1 consensus DNA-binding motif revealed ZBRK1-binding sites in the SCA2 promoter. These predicted sites were experimentally validated by chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments along with luciferase-based promoter analyses corroborating that SCA2 gene transcription is controlled by a ZBRK1/ataxin-2 complex. Finally, we demonstrate that SCA2 gene transcription is significantly reduced in colon tumors possessing low ZBRK1 transcripts. Thus, our results provide first evidence that ataxin-2 acts as a co-regulator of ZBRK1 activating its own transcription, thereby representing the first identified ZBRK1 co-activator.
Human Molecular Genetics 10/2010; 20(1):104-14. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddq436 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The generation of recombinant antibodies by phage display in high-throughput demands fast downstream technologies and streamlined processes for the identification and initial characterisation of individual binders. Next to standard immunological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Western-blot, protein microarrays offer a wide range of possibilities in the evaluation process of monoclonal binders. Here, we describe the application of a special protein microarray method – the multiple spotting technique (MIST) – for the simultaneous evaluation of hundreds of phage display derived soluble monoclonal antibody fragments on protein microarrays. The standard operating procedures provided include the expression of soluble antibody fragments in microtitre plates, the spotting protocols and data evaluation schemes. Additionally, we show the comparability of this protein microarray application to conventional ELISA on a recent target antigen in our semi-automated selection pipeline. Applying MIST allows to reduce time, material and waste, and extends automation beyond the selection process applying conventional microarray machinery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phage display of combinatorial antibody libraries is a very efficient method for selecting recombinant antibodies against a wide range of molecules. It has been applied very successfully for the generation of therapeutic antibodies for more than a decade. To increase robustness and reproducibility of the selection procedure, we developed a semi-automated selection method for the generation of recombinant antibodies from phage display libraries. In this procedure, the selection targets are specifically immobilised to magnetic particles which can then by automatically handled by a magnetic particle processor. At present up to 96 samples can be handled simultaneously. Applying the processor allows standardisation of panning parameters such as washing conditions, incubation times, or to perform parallel selections on same targets under different buffer conditions. Additionally, the whole protocol has been streamlined to carry out bead loading, phage selection, phage amplification between selection rounds and magnetic particle ELISA for confirmation of binding activity in microtiter plate formats. Until now, this method has been successfully applied to select antibody fragments against different types of target, such as peptides, recombinant or homologous proteins, or chemical compounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Automation is the key approach for genomewide and proteomewide screening of function and interaction. Especially for proteomics, antibody microarrays are a useful tool for massive parallel profiling of complex samples. To meet the requirements of antibody microarrays and to obtain a great variety of antibodies, new technologies such as phage display have partly replaced the classical hybridoma method. While the selection process for phage-displayed antibody fragments itself has been automated, the bottleneck was shifted further downstream to the identification of monoclonal binders obtained from the selections. Here, we present a new approach to reduce time, material, and waste to extend automation beyond the selection process by application of conventional microarray machinery. We were able to express recombinant antibody fragments in a single inoculation and expression step and subjected them without purification directly to an automated high-throughput screening procedure based on the multiple spotting technique (MIST). While obtaining comparable sensitivities to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we minimized manual interaction steps and streamlined the technique to be accessible within the automated selection procedure.