Jayme E Locke

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States

Are you Jayme E Locke?

Claim your profile

Publications (54)309.41 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a considerable health issue in the United States and represents the most common healthcare-associated infection. Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of CDI, which can affect both graft and patient survival. However, little is known about the impact of CDI on health services utilization posttransplantation. We examined hospital-onset CDI from 2012 to 2014 among transplant recipients in the University HealthSystem Consortium, which includes academic medical center–affiliated hospitals in the United States. Infection was five times more common among transplant recipients than among general medicine inpatients (209 vs 40 per 10 000 discharges), and factors associated with CDI among transplant recipients included transplant type, risk of mortality, comorbidities, and inpatient complications. Institutional risk-standardized CDI varied more than 3-fold across high-volume hospitals (infection ratio 0.54–1.82, median 1.04, interquartile range 0.78–1.28). CDI was associated with increased 30-day readmission, transplant organ complications, cytomegalovirus infection, inpatient costs, and lengths of stay. Total observed inpatient days and direct costs for those with CDI were substantially higher than risk-standardized expected values (40 094 vs 22 843 days, costs $198 728 368 vs $154 020 528). Further efforts to detect, prevent, and manage CDI among solid organ transplant recipients are warranted.
    American Journal of Transplantation 11/2015; 15(11-11):2970-2977. DOI:10.1111/ajt.13491 · 5.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early outcomes after human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) + liver transplantation (LT) are encouraging, but data are lacking regarding long-term outcomes and comparisons with matched HIV- patients. We examined outcomes among 180 HIV+ LT, and compared outcomes to matched HIV- counterfactuals (Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients 2002-2011). Iterative expanding radius matching (1:10) on recipient age, race, body mass index, hepatitis C virus (HCV), model for end-stage liver disease score, and acute rejection; and donor age and race, cold ischemia time, and year of transplant. Patient survival and graft survival were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methodology and compared using log-rank and Cox proportional hazards. Subgroup analyses were performed by transplant era (early: 2002-2007 vs modern: 2008-2011) and HCV infection status. Compared to matched HIV- controls, HIV+ LT recipients had a 1.68-fold increased risk for death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.68, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.28-2.20; P < 0.001), and a 1.70-fold increased risk for graft loss (aHR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.31-2.20; P < 0.001). These differences persisted independent of HCV infection status. However, in the modern transplant era risk for death (aHR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.52-2.35; P = 0.79) and graft loss (aHR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.42-1.88; P = 0.77) were similar between monoinfected and uninfected LT recipients. In contrast, independent of transplant era, coinfected LT recipients had increased risk for death (aHR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.43-3.53; P < 0.001) and graft loss (aHR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.33-3.22; P = 0.001) compared to HCV+ alone LT recipients. These results suggest that outcomes among monoinfected HIV+ LT recipients have improved over time. However, outcomes among HIV+ LT recipients coinfected with HCV remain concerning and motivate future survival benefit studies.
    Transplantation 07/2015; DOI:10.1097/TP.0000000000000829 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kidney transplantation is a viable treatment for select patients with HIV and ESRD, but data are lacking regarding long-term outcomes and comparisons with appropriately matched HIV-negative patients. We analyzed data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR; 2002-2011): 510 adult kidney transplant recipients with HIV (median follow-up, 3.8 years) matched 1:10 to HIV-negative controls. Compared with HIV-negative controls, HIV-infected recipients had significantly lower 5-year (75.3% versus 69.2%) and 10-year (54.4% versus 49.8%) post-transplant graft survival (GS) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.15 to 1.64; P<0.001) that persisted when censoring for death (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.84; P=0.005). However, compared with HIV-negative/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-negative controls, HIV monoinfected recipients had similar 5-year and 10-year GS, whereas HIV/HCV coinfected recipients had worse GS (5-year: 64.0% versus 52.0%, P=0.02; 10-year: 36.2% versus 27.0%, P=0.004 [HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.77; P=0.01]). Patient survival (PS) among HIV-infected recipients was 83.5% at 5 years and 51.6% at 10 years and was significantly lower than PS among HIV-negative controls (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.68; P<0.01). However, PS was similar for HIV monoinfected recipients and HIV-negative/HCV-negative controls at both times. HIV/HCV coinfected recipients had worse PS compared with HIV-negative/HCV-infected controls (5-year: 67.0% versus 78.6%, P=0.007; 10-year: 29.3% versus 56.23%, P=0.002 [HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.22; P=0.01]). In conclusion, HIV-negative and HIV monoinfected kidney transplant recipients had similar GS and PS, whereas HIV/HCV coinfected recipients had worse outcomes. Although encouraging, these results suggest caution in transplanting coinfected patients. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2015; 26(9). DOI:10.1681/ASN.2014070726 · 9.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Excellent outcomes among HIV+ kidney transplant (KT) recipients have been reported by the NIH consortium, but it is unclear if experience with HIV+ KT is required to achieve these outcomes. We studied associations between experience measures and outcomes in 499 HIV+ recipients (SRTR data 2004-2011). Experience measures examined included: (1) center-level participation in the NIH consortium; (2) KT experiential learning curve; and (3) transplant era (2004-2007 vs. 2008-2011). There was no difference in outcomes among centers early in their experience (first 5 HIV+ KT) compared to centers having performed >6 HIV+ KT (GS adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.68-1.61, p = 0.82; PS aHR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.56-1.53, p = 0.76), and participation in the NIH-study was not associated with any better outcomes (GS aHR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.71-1.65, p = 0.71; PS aHR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.68-1.89, p = 0.63). Transplant era was strongly associated with outcomes; HIV+ KTs performed in 2008-2011 had 38% lower risk of graft loss (aHR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42-0.92, p = 0.02) and 41% lower risk of death (aHR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.39-0.90, p = 0.01) than that in 2004-2007. Outcomes after HIV+ KT have improved over time, but center-level experience or consortium participation is not necessary to achieve excellent outcomes, supporting continued expansion of HIV+ KT in the US. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
    American Journal of Transplantation 03/2015; 15(8). DOI:10.1111/ajt.13220 · 5.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Changes to the liver allocation system have been proposed to decrease regional variation in access to liver transplant. It is unclear what impact these changes will have on cold ischemia times (CITs) and donor transportation costs. Therefore, we performed a retrospective single center study (2008–2012) measuring liver procurement CIT and transportation costs. Four groups were defined: Local-within driving distance (Local-D, n = 262), Local-flight (Local-F, n = 105), Regional-flight <3 h (Regional <3 h, n = 61) and Regional-Flight >3 h (Regional >3 h, n = 53). The median travel distance increased in each group, varying from zero miles (Local-D), 196 miles (Local-F), 384 miles (Regional <3 h), to 1647 miles (Regional >3 h). Increasing travel distances did not significantly increase CIT until the flight time was >3 h. The average CIT ranged from 5.0 to 6.0 h for Local-D, Local-F and Regional <3 h, but increased to 10 h for Regional >3 h (p < 0.0001). Transportation costs increased with greater distance traveled: Local-D $101, Local-F $1993, Regional <3 h $8324 and Regional >3 h $27 810 (p < 0.0001). With proposed redistricting, local financial modeling suggests that the average liver donor procurement transportation variable direct costs will increase from $2415 to $7547/liver donor, an increase of 313%. These findings suggest that further discussion among transplant centers and insurance providers is needed prior to policy implementation.
    American Journal of Transplantation 02/2015; 15(2). DOI:10.1111/ajt.12981 · 5.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: African Americans are disproportionately affected by ESRD, but few receive a living donor kidney transplant. Surveys assessing attitudes toward donation have shown that African Americans are less likely to express a willingness to donate their own organs. Studies aimed at understanding factors that may facilitate the willingness of African Americans to become organ donors are needed. A novel formative research method was used (the nominal group technique) to identify and prioritize strategies for facilitating increases in organ donation among church-attending African Americans. Four nominal group technique panel interviews were convened (three community and one clergy). Each community panel represented a distinct local church; the clergy panel represented five distinct faith-based denominations. Before nominal group technique interviews, participants completed a questionnaire that assessed willingness to become a donor; 28 African-American adults (≥19 years old) participated in the study. In total, 66.7% of participants identified knowledge- or education-related strategies as most important strategies in facilitating willingness to become an organ donor, a view that was even more pronounced among clergy. Three of four nominal group technique panels rated a knowledge-based strategy as the most important and included strategies, such as information on donor involvement and donation-related risks; 29.6% of participants indicated that they disagreed with deceased donation, and 37% of participants disagreed with living donation. Community participants' reservations about becoming an organ donor were similar for living (38.1%) and deceased (33.4%) donation; in contrast, clergy participants were more likely to express reservations about living donation (33.3% versus 16.7%). These data indicate a greater opposition to living donation compared with donation after one's death among African Americans and suggest that improving knowledge about organ donation, particularly with regard to donor involvement and donation-related risks, may facilitate increases in organ donation. Existing educational campaigns may fall short of meeting information needs of African Americans. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2015; 10(2). DOI:10.2215/CJN.05770614 · 4.61 Impact Factor

  • 15th Annual State of the Art Winter Symposium of the; 01/2015

  • 15th Annual State of the Art Winter Symposium of the; 01/2015

  • 15th Annual State of the Art Winter Symposium of the; 01/2015

  • 15th Annual State of the Art Winter Symposium of the; 01/2015

  • 15th Annual State of the Art Winter Symposium of the; 01/2015
  • Jayme E. Locke ·

    Liver Transplantation 09/2014; 20(9). DOI:10.1002/lt.23953 · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Incompatible live donor kidney transplantation is associated with an increased rate of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and subsequent transplant glomerulopathy. For patients with severe, oliguric AMR, graft loss is inevitable without timely intervention. Methods: We reviewed our experience rescuing kidney allografts with this severe AMR phenotype by using splenectomy alone (n=14), eculizumab alone (n=5), or splenectomy plus eculizumab (n=5), in addition to plasmapheresis. Results: The study population was 267 consecutive patients with donor-specific antibody undergoing desensitization. In the first 3 weeks after transplantation (median=6 days), 24 patients developed sudden onset oliguria and rapidly rising serum creatinine with marked rebound of donor-specific antibody, and a biopsy that showed features of AMR. At a median follow-up of 533 days, 4 of 14 splenectomy-alone patients experienced graft loss (median=320 days), compared to four of five eculizumab-alone patients with graft failure (median=95 days). No patients treated with splenectomy plus eculizumab experienced graft loss. There was more chronic glomerulopathy in the splenectomy-alone and eculizumab-alone groups at 1 year, whereas splenectomy plus eculizumab patients had almost no transplant glomerulopathy. Conclusion: These data suggest that for patients manifesting early severe AMR, splenectomy plus eculizumab may provide an effective intervention for rescuing and preserving allograft function.
    Transplantation 08/2014; 98(8). DOI:10.1097/TP.0000000000000298 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Jayme E Locke · Dorry L Segev ·

    Transplantation 06/2014; 97(12):e70-e71. DOI:10.1097/TP.0000000000000193 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The strategy of evaluating every donation opportunity warrants an investigation into the financial feasibility of this practice. The purpose of this investigation is to measure resource utilization required for procurement of transplantable organs in an organ procurement organization (OPO). Donors were stratified into those that met OPTN-defined eligible death criteria (ED donors, n=589) and those that did not (NED donors, n=703). Variable direct costs and time utilization by OPO staff for organ procurement were measured and amortized per organ transplanted using permutation methods and statistical bootstrapping/resampling approaches. More organs per donor were procured (3.66±1.2 vs. 2.34±0.8, P<0.0001) and transplanted (3.51±1.2 vs. 2.08±0.8, P<0.0001) in ED donors compared with NED donors. The variable direct costs were significantly lower in the NED donors ($29,879.4±11590.1 vs. $19,019.6±7599.60, P<0.0001). In contrast, the amortized variable direct costs per organ transplanted were significantly higher in the NED donors ($8,414.5±138.29 vs. $9,272.04±344.56, P<0.0001). The ED donors where thoracic organ procurement occurred were 67% more expensive than in abdominal-only organ procurement. The total time allocated per donor was significantly shorter in the NED donors (91.2±44.9 hr vs. 86.8±78.6 hr, P=0.01). In contrast, the amortized time per organ transplanted was significantly longer in the NED donors (23.1±0.8 hr vs. 36.9±3.2 hr, P<0.001). The variable direct costs and time allocated per organ transplanted is significantly higher in donors that do not meet the eligible death criteria.
    Transplantation 02/2014; 97(10). DOI:10.1097/01.TP.0000441093.32217.cb · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Jayme E Locke · Dorry L Segev ·

    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 01/2014; 63(4). DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.01.007 · 5.90 Impact Factor
  • J Donnelly · H Wang · J Locke · R Mannon · J Baddley ·

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kidney transplantation (KT) is the treatment for end-stage renal disease in appropriate HIV-positive individuals. However, acute rejection (AR) rates are over twice those of HIV-negative recipients. To better understand optimal immunosuppression for HIV-positive KT recipients, we studied associations between immunosuppression regimen, AR at 1 year, and survival in 516 HIV-positive and 93,027 HIV-negative adult kidney-only recipients using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data from 2003 to 2011. Consistent with previous reports, HIV-positive patients had twofold higher risk of AR (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-2.2; P<0.001) than their HIV-negative counterparts as well as a higher risk of graft loss (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.18-1.94; P=0.001), but these differences were not seen among patients receiving antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction (aRR for AR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.41-3.35, P=0.77; adjusted hazard ratio for graft loss, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.73-3.25; P=0.26). Furthermore, HIV-positive patients receiving ATG induction had a 2.6-fold lower risk of AR (aRR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18-0.87; P=0.02) than those receiving no antibody induction. Conversely, HIV-positive patients receiving sirolimus-based therapy had a 2.2-fold higher risk of AR (aRR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.20-3.86; P=0.01) than those receiving calcineurin inhibitor-based regimens. These findings support a role for ATG induction, and caution against the use of sirolimus-based maintenance therapy, in HIV-positive individuals undergoing KT.
    Transplantation 10/2013; 97(4). DOI:10.1097/01.TP.0000436905.54640.8c · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our study objective is to measure the survival impact of insurance status following liver transplantation in a cohort of uninsured "charity care" patients. These patients are analogous to the population who will gain insurance via the Affordable Care Act. We hypothesize there will be reduced survival in charity care compared to other insurance strata. We conducted a retrospective study of 898 liver transplants from 2000 to 2010. Insurance cohorts were classified as private (n = 640), public (n = 233) and charity care (n = 23). The 1, 3 and 5-year survival was 92%, 88% and 83% in private insurance, 89%, 80% and 73% in public insurance and 83%, 72% and 51% in charity care. Compared to private insurance, multivariable regression analyses demonstrated charity care (HR 3.11, CI 1.41-6.86) and public insurance (HR 1.58, CI 1.06-2.34) had a higher 5-year mortality hazard ratio. In contrast, other measures of socioeconomic status were not significantly associated with increased mortality. The charity care cohort demonstrated the highest incidence of acute rejection and missed clinic appointments. These data suggest factors other than demographic and socioeconomic may be associated with increased mortality. Further investigations are necessary to determine causative predictors of increased mortality in liver transplant patients without private insurance.
    American Journal of Transplantation 05/2013; 13(6). DOI:10.1111/ajt.12244 · 5.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common cause of graft loss and patient death after transplantation for HCV cirrhosis. Transplant surgeons have access to uninfected explanted livers before transplantation and an opportunity to deliver RNA interference-based protective gene therapy to uninfected grafts. Conserved HCV sequences were used to design short interfering RNAs and test their ability to knockdown HCV transcript expression in an in vitro model, both by transfection and when delivered via an adeno-associated viral vector. In a rodent model of liver transplantation, portal venous perfusion of explanted grafts with an adeno-associated viral vector before transplantation produced detectable short hairpin RNA transcript expression after transplantation. The ability to deliver anti-HCV short hairpin RNAs to uninfected livers before transplantation and subsequent exposure to HCV offers hope for the possibility of preventing the currently inevitable subsequent infection of liver grafts with HCV.
    Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 04/2012; 147(4):384-7. DOI:10.1001/archsurg.2011.1250 · 4.93 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

966 Citations
309.41 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Division of Transplantation Surgery
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2005-2012
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Surgery
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2008-2011
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Surgery
      Baltimore, MD, United States