[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydroxyectoine overproduction by the natural producer Chromohalobacter salexigens is presented in this study. Genetically engineered strains were constructed that at low salinity co-expressed, in a vector derived from a native plasmid, the ectoine (ectABC) and hydroxyectoine (ectD) genes under the control of the ectA promoter, in a temperature-independent manner. Hydroxyectoine production was further improved by increasing the copies of ectD and using a C. salexigens genetic background unable to synthesize ectoines.
Applied and environmental microbiology 11/2012; · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The disaccharide trehalose is considered as a universal stress molecule, protecting cells and biomolecules from injuries imposed by high osmolarity, heat, oxidation, desiccation and freezing. Chromohalobacter salexigens is a halophilic and extremely halotolerant γ-proteobacterium of the family Halomonadaceae. In this work, we have investigated the role of trehalose as a protectant against salinity, temperature and desiccation in C. salexigens. A mutant deficient in the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (otsA::Ω) was not affected in its salt or heat tolerance, but double mutants ectoine- and trehalose-deficient, or hydroxyectoine-reduced and trehalose-deficient, displayed an osmo- and thermosensitive phenotype, respectively. This suggests a role of trehalose as a secondary solute involved in osmo- (at least at low salinity) and thermoprotection of C. salexigens. Interestingly, trehalose synthesis was osmoregulated at the transcriptional level, and thermoregulated at the post-transcriptional level, suggesting that C. salexigens cells need to be pre-conditioned by osmotic stress, in order to be able to quickly synthesize trehalose in response to heat stress. C. salexigens was more sensitive to desiccation than E. coli and desiccation tolerance was slightly improved when cells were grown at high temperature. Under these conditions, single mutants affected in the synthesis of trehalose or hydroxyectoine were more sensitive to desiccation than the wild-type strain. However, given the low survival rates of the wild type, the involvement of trehalose and hydroxyectoine in C. salexigens response to desiccation could not be firmly established.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33587. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Halophilic gammaproteobacteria of the family Halomonadaceae (including the genera Aidingimonas, Carnimonas, Chromohalobacter, Cobetia, Halomonas, Halotalea, Kushneria, Modicisalibacter, Salinicola, and Zymobacter) have current and promising applications in biotechnology mainly as a source of compatible solutes (powerful stabilizers of biomolecules and cells, with exciting potentialities in biomedicine), salt-tolerant enzymes, biosurfactants, and extracellular polysaccharides, among other products. In addition, they display a number of advantages to be used as cell factories, alternative to conventional prokaryotic hosts like Escherichia coli or Bacillus, for the production of recombinant proteins: (1) their high salt tolerance decreases to a minimum the necessity for aseptic conditions, resulting in cost-reducing conditions, (2) they are very easy to grow and maintain in the laboratory, and their nutritional requirements are simple, and (3) the majority can use a large range of compounds as a sole carbon and energy source. In the last 15 years, the efforts of our group and others have made possible the genetic manipulation of this bacterial group. In this review, the most relevant and recent tools for their genetic manipulation are described, with emphasis on nucleic acid isolation procedures, cloning and expression vectors, genetic exchange mechanisms, mutagenesis approaches, reporter genes, and genetic expression analyses. Complementary sections describing the influence of salinity on the susceptibility of these bacteria to antimicrobials, as well as the growth media most routinely used and culture conditions, for these microorganisms, are also included.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 824:167-201.