[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most cancers are characterized by multiple molecular alterations, but identification of the key proteins involved in these signaling pathways is currently beyond reach. We show that the inhibitor PU-H71 preferentially targets tumor-enriched Hsp90 complexes and affinity captures Hsp90-dependent oncogenic client proteins. We have used PU-H71 affinity capture to design a proteomic approach that, when combined with bioinformatic pathway analysis, identifies dysregulated signaling networks and key oncoproteins in chronic myeloid leukemia. The identified interactome overlaps with the well-characterized altered proteome in this cancer, indicating that this method can provide global insights into the biology of individual tumors, including primary patient specimens. In addition, we show that this approach can be used to identify previously uncharacterized oncoproteins and mechanisms, potentially leading to new targeted therapies. We further show that the abundance of the PU-H71-enriched Hsp90 species, which is not dictated by Hsp90 expression alone, is predictive of the cell's sensitivity to Hsp90 inhibition.
Nature Chemical Biology 09/2011; 7(11):818-26. · 12.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of compounds from different chemical classes are known to bind competitively to the ATP-pocket of Hsp90 and inhibit its chaperone function. The natural product geldanamycin was the first reported inhibitor of Hsp90 and since then synthetic inhibitors from purine, isoxazole and indazol-4-one chemical classes have been discovered and are currently or soon to be in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. In spite of a similar binding mode to Hsp90, distinct biological profiles were demonstrated among these molecules, both in vitro and in vivo. To better understand the molecular basis for these dissimilarities, we report here the synthesis of chemical tools for three Hsp90 inhibitor classes. These agents will be useful for probing tumor-by-tumor the Hsp90 complexes isolated by specific inhibitors. Such information will lead to better understanding of tumor specific molecular markers to aid in their clinical development. It will also help to elucidate the molecular basis for the biological differences observed among Hsp90 inhibitors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is a chaperone protein that helps protect against cellular stress, a function that may be co-opted to fight human diseases. In particular, the upregulation of Hsp70 can suppress the neurotoxicity of misfolded proteins, suggesting possible therapeutic strategies in neurodegenerative diseases. Alternatively, in cancer cells where high levels of Hsp70 inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, a reduction in Hsp70 levels may induce apoptosis. To evaluate and identify, in a single assay format, small molecules that induce or inhibit endogenous Hsp70, we have designed and optimized a microtiter assay that relies on whole-cell immunodetection of Hsp70. The assay utilizes a minimal number of neuronal or cancer cells, yet is sufficiently sensitive and reproducible to permit quantitative determinations. We further validated the assay using a panel of Hsp70 modulators. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that is fast, robust, and cost efficient. As such, it can be implemented in most research laboratories. The assay should greatly improve the speed at which novel Hsp70 inducers and inhibitors of expression can be identified and evaluated.
Assay and Drug Development Technologies 12/2010; 9(3):236-46. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: JAK2 kinase inhibitors were developed for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), following the discovery of activating JAK2 mutations in the majority of patients with MPN. However, to date JAK2 inhibitor treatment has shown limited efficacy and apparent toxicities in clinical trials. We report here that an HSP90 inhibitor, PU-H71, demonstrated efficacy in cell line and mouse models of the MPN polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocytosis (ET) by disrupting JAK2 protein stability. JAK2 physically associated with both HSP90 and PU-H71 and was degraded by PU-H71 treatment in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that JAK2 is an HSP90 chaperone client. PU-H71 treatment caused potent, dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and signaling in JAK2 mutant cell lines and in primary MPN patient samples. PU-H71 treatment of mice resulted in JAK2 degradation, inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling, normalization of peripheral blood counts, and improved survival in MPN models at doses that did not degrade JAK2 in normal tissues or cause substantial toxicity. Importantly, PU-H71 treatment also reduced the mutant allele burden in mice. These data establish what we believe to be a novel therapeutic rationale for HSP90 inhibition in the treatment of JAK2-dependent MPN.
The Journal of clinical investigation 10/2010; 120(10):3578-93. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are defined by a lack of expression of estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. Because of the absence of identified targets and targeted therapies, and due to a heterogeneous molecular presentation, treatment guidelines for patients with TNBC include only conventional chemotherapy. Such treatment, while effective for some, leaves others with high rates of early relapse and is not curative for any patient with metastatic disease. Here, we demonstrate that these tumors are sensitive to the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor PU-H71. Potent and durable anti-tumor effects in TNBC xenografts, including complete response and tumor regression, without toxicity to the host are achieved with this agent. Notably, TNBC tumors respond to retreatment with PU-H71 for several cycles extending for over 5 months without evidence of resistance or toxicity. Through a proteomics approach, we show that multiple oncoproteins involved in tumor proliferation, survival, and invasive potential are in complex with PU-H71-bound Hsp90 in TNBC. PU-H71 induces efficient and sustained downregulation and inactivation, both in vitro and in vivo, of these proteins. Among them, we identify downregulation of components of the Ras/Raf/MAPK pathway and G(2)-M phase to contribute to its anti-proliferative effect, degradation of activated Akt and Bcl-xL to induce apoptosis, and inhibition of activated NF-kappaB, Akt, ERK2, Tyk2, and PKC to reduce TNBC invasive potential. The results identify Hsp90 as a critical and multimodal target in this most difficult to treat breast cancer subtype and support the use of the Hsp90 inhibitor PU-H71 for clinical trials involving patients with TNBC.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2009; 106(20):8368-73. · 9.74 Impact Factor