[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Little is known about access to medicine among immigrant Latinos in the United States (US). This study explored access to, and use of, prescription drugs obtained from nonmedical sources among recently arrived, Spanish-speaking immigrant Latinos in rural North Carolina (NC).
Methods: Our community-based participatory research partnership collected, analyzed, and interpreted data from individual in-depth interviews with Latino community members and rural health service providers. A purposive sample of 30 community members, including traditional healers, religious leaders, transgender Latinos, heterosexual Latino men and women, and Latino gay men, were interviewed to gain emic (“insider”) perspectives on use of nonmedical sources of prescription drugs. Six local Latino health service providers also were interviewed to gain etic (“outsider”) perspectives on use.
Results: Participants described the roles of tiendas (grocers), family, and social networks in accessing treatment advice and prescription drugs. They described health care expectations among immigrants and contingencies for accessing prescription drugs in the US. Prescription medicines (eg, antibiotics, hormones, Viagra, analgesics), injection equipment (eg, syringes), and medical advice were identified as readily available from nonmedical sources.
Conclusions: Increased access to formalized health care and effective health education initiatives are needed to meet the challenges facing immigrant Latinos.
The Journal of Rural Health 02/2011; 27(2):159 - 167. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-0361.2010.00323.x · 1.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A community-based participatory research partnership explored HIV risk and potentially effective intervention characteristics to reduce exposure and transmission among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men living in the rural south-eastern USA. Twenty-one participants enrolled and completed a total of 62 ethnographic in-depth interviews. Mean age was 31 (range 18-48) years and English-language proficiency was limited; 18 participants were from Mexico. Four participants reported having sex with men and women during the past three months; two participants self-identified as male-to-female transgender. Qualitative themes that emerged included a lack of accurate information about HIV and prevention; the influence of social-political contexts to sexual risk; and barriers to healthcare services. We also identified eight characteristics of potentially effective interventions for HIV prevention. Our findings suggest that socio-political contexts must be additional targets of change to reduce and eliminate HIV health disparities experienced by immigrant Latino men who have sex with men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Latinos in the United States are at increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a pilot lay health adviser (LHA) intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Latino men. Fifteen LHAs (mean age = 35.6; range 23-60 years) from 15 Latino soccer teams were trained and worked with their teammates for 18 months. Another 15 teams served as the control group. Data were collected at baseline and at 18 months post-LHA training from a random sample of teammates from intervention and control teams. Data were collected from 222 men (mean age = 29 years) who participated in one of the 30 teams. Relative to the control condition, participants in the intervention reported more consistent condom use in the 30 days preceding follow-up (unadjusted analysis, intervention, 65.6% vs. control, 41.3%; p < .001). Participants in the intervention were more likely to report condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.3; confidence interval [CI = 1.2-4.3) and HIV testing (AOR = 2.5; CI = 1.5-4.3). LHA interventions for Latino men that are developed in partnership with community members, rely on male-centered intrapersonal networks, and are culturally congruent can enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection.
AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education 10/2009; 21(5 Suppl):103-8. DOI:10.1521/aeap.2009.21.5_supp.103 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HoMBReS was a lay health adviser (LHA) intervention designed to reduce sexual risk among recently arrived, nonEnglish-speaking Latino men who were members of a multicounty soccer league in central NC. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership collected, analyzed, and interpreted qualitative life-story narratives to characterize the roles of male LHAs known as Navegantes. Nine Navegantes were interviewed. Their mean age was 39 years (range: 26-62 years); six were from Mexico and three from El Salvador. Navegantes described the function and facilitators of serving as LHAs and identified leverage points for future HIV and STD prevention strategies. They highlighted psychosocial and sociocultural influences on HIV risk, settings for risky behavior, and personal changes from serving as Navegantes. This study provides preliminary evidence that an LHA approach is feasible and appropriate for Latino men, and can be effective in reaching men who might otherwise be difficult to reach.
AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education 07/2009; 21(3):220-32. DOI:10.1521/aeap.2009.21.3.220 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the intersections of immigration, masculinity and sexual risk behaviours among recently arrived Latino men in the USA. Nine immigrant Latino men from three urban housing communities in the South-eastern USA used photovoice to identify and explore their lived experiences. From the participants' photographs and words, thirteen themes emerged within four domains. The immigration experience and sociocultural norms and expectations of masculinity were factors identified decreasing Latino men's sense of power and increasing stress, which lead to sexual risk. Latino community strengths and general community strengths were factors that participants identified as promoting health and preventing risk. These themes influenced the development of a conceptual model to explain risk among immigrant Latino men. This model requires further exploration and may prove useful in intervention development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the burgeoning immigrant Hispanic/Latino community in the southeastern United States, little is known about the utilization of healthcare services by this population. We sought to identify demographic, behavioral and psychosocial characteristics of immigrant Hispanic/Latino men who report utilizing formal healthcare services. Using an interviewer-administered assessment, data were collected from a random sample of members of a multicounty adult Latino men's soccer league in North Carolina. Of the 222 participants, the mean (+/-SD) age was 29.8 +/-8.3, with a range of 18-71 years. More than half of the sample reported Mexico as their country of origin and grade < or =8 as their highest level of education. The mean length of time living in the United States was 8.8 (+/- 7.6) years. An increased likelihood of reporting having ever utilized formal healthcare services associated with decreased perceived barriers to utilization, increased acculturation, increased adherence to traditional notions of masculinity and increased coping. Effective strategies to increase the utilization of formal healthcare services among Hispanic/Latino men may include diffusing information about the availability of services and how to access services and linking healthcare utilization with positive aspects of what it means to be a man.
Journal of the National Medical Association 10/2008; 100(10):1177-85. · 0.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the intent of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is to include community voices in all phases of a research initiative, community partners appear less frequently engaged in data analysis and interpretation than in other research phases. Using 4 brief case studies, each with a different data collection methodology, we provide examples of how community members participated in data analysis, interpretation, or both, thereby strengthening community capacity and providing unique insight. The roles and skills of the community and academic partners were different from but complementary to each other. We suggest that including community partners in data analysis and interpretation, while lengthening project time, enriches insights and findings and consequently should be a focus of the next generation of CBPR initiatives.
American Journal of Public Health 09/2008; 98(8):1407-17. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2007.113571 · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clustering of diet and other lifestyle behaviors and their psychosocial correlates were examined among 455 Latino and African American men in the U.S. Southeast. Men were recruited by male community health workers and surveys were self-administered in a group format. Latino men were younger, less educated, and more likely to be employed than African American men and reported a lower household income and larger household size. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with physical activity (p < or = .001). A more positive attitude toward health was associated with meeting vegetable dietary guidelines (p < or = .05) and consuming fast food less frequently (p < or = .01). Active coping was associated with meeting fruit and vegetable dietary guidelines (p < or = .01 and p < or = .001, respectively), and avoidant coping was associated with greater fast-food consumption (p < or = .001). Latino fast-food consumption was associated with binge drinking (p < or = .001). This research provides evidence for tailoring dietary intervention for men of color.
American journal of men's health 05/2008; 3(3):201-13. DOI:10.1177/1557988308317138 · 1.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (+/-SD) age was 29.8 (+/-8.3) years. Approximately 60% reported Mexico as their country of origin, 60% reported Grade 8 or below as their highest level of education, and 50% reported using condoms during their most recent vaginal intercourse episodes. Adjusting for relationship status, multivariable logistic regression identified four correlates of condom use: having sought health care information from family members (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.48-9.13); greater knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention (AOR = 2.61; CI = 1.23-5.54); greater condom use self-efficacy (AOR = 4.45; 95% CI = 2.12-9.36); and greater adherence to traditional masculine norms (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.02-4.33). Our findings underscore the need for innovative and targeted HIV and STD prevention programming among the emerging Latino community in the southeastern United States.
AIDS Education and Prevention 11/2007; 19(5):436-47. DOI:10.1521/aeap.2007.19.5.436 · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore sociocultural determinants of HIV risk and identify potential intervention approaches among adult Latino men.
Using community-based participatory research for study design and implementation and data analysis, 7 focus groups were conducted with members of a soccer league in central North Carolina.
Five themes emerged, including perceived barriers to accessing health care, the role of hegemonic masculinity in risk, and potentially effective intervention approaches to health promotion and disease prevention.
Latino soccer leagues may provide an effective social network with which to partner to design, implement, and evaluate interventions to reduce sexual risk among Latino men, who have been inaccessible in conventional HIV/ STD prevention programs.
American journal of health behavior 03/2007; 31(2):146-58. DOI:10.5555/ajhb.2007.31.2.146 · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the Latino community living in the United States has been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV and STD prevention interventions designed to reduce infection among Latinos lags behind prevention efforts targeting other communities. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables is a sexual risk reduction intervention designed to reduce HIV and STD infection among recently arrived, non-English-speaking Latino men who are members of a multicounty Latino soccer league in central North Carolina, a region of the United States with both the fastest growing Latino population and disproportionate HIV and STD infection rates. HoMBReS was developed in partnership with the local Latino community using community-based participatory research (CBPR). We describe (a) the CBPR partnership history and further expansion; (b) the development of the intervention through the integration of collected formative data, theoretical considerations, and findings from the scientific literature; and (c) lessons learned while using a CBPR approach to develop HoMBReS.
AIDS Education and Prevention 11/2006; 18(5):375-89. DOI:10.1521/aeap.2006.18.5.375 · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to problem identification and exploration, a total of 74 Latino men (mean age 22.3, range 18-37) residing in an urban city in northwest North Carolina participated in one of eight focus groups on sexual health. Among the findings of this study, >75% of participants reported Mexico as their country of origin; other participants reported being from Central and South American countries. Qualitative data analysis identified 13 themes, which were grouped into the following three domains: 1) psychosocial factors identified as influencing sexual risk health behaviors; 2) system-level barriers to sexual health; and 3) characteristics of potentially effective HIV prevention intervention approaches. The study findings suggest that community-based, male-centered interpersonal networks that provide individual and group education and skill-building and incorporate curanderos (Latino healers) and bilingual experts may be important elements of potentially effective intervention approaches to reach Latino men, who have been inaccessible to conventional HIV prevention programs.
Journal of the National Medical Association 05/2006; 98(4):564-73. · 0.91 Impact Factor