[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) accounts for about 95% of world cotton production. Improving Upland cotton cultivars has been the focus of world-wide cotton breeding programs. Negative correlation between yield and fiber quality is an obstacle for cotton improvement. Random-mating provides a potential methodology to break this correlation. The suite of fiber quality traits that affect the yarn quality includes the length, strength, maturity, fineness, elongation, uniformity and color. Identification of stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) in Upland cotton is essential in order to improve cotton cultivars with superior quality using marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetolactate synthase (ALS) is responsible for a rate-limiting step in the synthesis of essential branched-chain amino acids. Resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides, such as trifloxysulfuron sodium (Envoke®), can be due to mutations in the target gene itself. Alternatively, plants may exhibit herbicide tolerance through reduced uptake and translocation or increased metabolism of the herbicide. The diverse family of cytochrome P450 proteins has been suggested to be a source of novel herbicide metabolism in both weed and crop plants. In this study we generated a mapping population between resistant and susceptible cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars. We found that both cultivars possess identical and sensitive ALS sequences; however, the segregation of resistance in the F2 progeny was consistent with a single dominant gene. Here we report the closely linked genetic markers and approximate physical location on chromosome 20 of the source of Envoke herbicide susceptibility in the cotton cultivar Paymaster HS26. There are no P450 proteins in the corresponding region of the G. raimondii Ulbr. genome, suggesting that an uncharacterized molecular mechanism is responsible for Envoke herbicide tolerance in G. hirsutum. Identification of this genetic mechanism will provide new opportunities for exploiting sulfonylurea herbicides for management of both weeds and crop plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic expression of a trait is complicated and it is usually associated with many genes including their interactions (epistasis) and genotype-by-environment interactions. Genetic mapping currently focuses primarily on additive models or marginal genetic effects due to the complexity of epistatic effects. Thus, there exists a need to appropriately identify favorable epistatic effects for important biological traits. Several multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) based methods are important resources to identify high-order gene–gene interactions. These methods are mainly focused on human genetic studies. Many traits in plant systems are not only quantitatively inherited but also are often measured in repeated field plots under multiple environments. In this study, we proposed a mixed model based MDR approach, which is suitable for inclusion of various fixed and random effects. This approach was used to analyze a cotton data set that included eight agronomic and fiber traits and 20 DNA markers. The results revealed high order epistatic effects were detected for most of these traits using this modified MDR approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) cultivars highly resistant to the southern root-knot nematode (RKN) [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood] are not available. Resistant germplasm lines are available; however, the difficulty of selecting
true breeding lines has hindered applied breeding and no highly resistant cultivars are available to growers. Recently, molecular
markers on chromosomes 11 and 14 have been associated with RKN resistance, thus opening the way for marker assisted selection
(MAS) in applied breeding. Our study aimed to determine the utility of these markers for MAS. Cross one was RKN resistant
germplasm M240 RNR × the susceptible cultivar, FM966 and is representative of the initial cross a breeder would make to develop
a RKN resistant cultivar. Cross two consists of Clevewilt 6 × Mexico Wild (PI563649), which are the two lines originally used
to develop the first highly RKN resistant germplasm. Mexico Wild is photoperiodic. We phenotyped the F2 of cross one for gall index and number of RKN eggs per plant and genotyped each plant for CIR 316 (chromosome 11) and BNL
3661 (chromosome 14). From this, we verified that MAS was effective, and the QTL on chromosome 14 was primarily associated
with a dominant RKN resistance gene affecting reproduction. In the first F2 population of cross two, we used MAS to identify 11 plants homozygous for the markers on chromosomes 11 and 14, and which
also flowered in long days. Progeny of these 11 plants were phenotyped for RKN gall index and egg number and confirmed as
RKN highly resistant plants. Generally about 7–10 generations of RKN phenotyping and progeny testing were required to develop
the original RKN highly resistant germplasms. Our results show that commercial breeders should be able to use the markers
in MAS to rapidly develop RKN resistant cultivars.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficient construction of large-scale linkage maps is highly desired in current gene mapping projects. To evaluate the performance of available approaches in the literature, four published methods, the insertion (IN), seriation (SER), neighbor mapping (NM), and unidirectional growth (UG) were compared on the basis of simulated F(2) data with various population sizes, interferences, missing genotype rates, and mis-genotyping rates. Simulation results showed that the IN method outperformed, or at least was comparable to, the other three methods. These algorithms were also applied to a real data set and results showed that the linkage order obtained by the IN algorithm was superior to the other methods. Thus, this study suggests that the IN method should be used when constructing large-scale linkage maps.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2011; 123(4):649-55. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of molecular markers that are closely linked to gene(s) in Gossypium barbadense L. accession GB713 that confer a high level of resistance to reniform nematode (RN), Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira, would be very useful in cotton breeding programs. Our objectives were to determine the inheritance of RN resistance in the accession GB713, to identify SSR markers linked with RN resistance QTLs, and to map these linked markers to specific chromosomes. We grew and scored plants for RN reproduction in the P(1), P(2), F(1), F(2), BC(1)P(1), and BC(1)P(2) generations from the cross of GB713 × Acala Nem-X. The generation means analysis using the six generations indicated that one or more genes were involved in the RN resistance of GB713. The interspecific F(2) population of 300 plants was genotyped with SSR molecular markers that covered most of the chromosomes of Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.). Results showed two QTLs on chromosome 21 and one QTL on chromosome 18. One QTL on chromosome 21 was at map position 168.6 (LOD 28.0) flanked by SSR markers, BNL 1551_162 and GH 132_199 at positions 154.2 and 177.3, respectively. A second QTL on chromosome 21 was at map position 182.7 (LOD 24.6) flanked by SSR markers BNL 4011_155 and BNL 3279_106 at positions 180.6 and 184.5, respectively. Our chromosome 21 map had 61 SSR markers covering 219 cM. One QTL with smaller genetic effects was localized to chromosome 18 at map position 39.6 (LOD 4.0) and flanked by SSR markers BNL 1721_178 and BNL 569_131 at positions 27.6 and 42.9, respectively. The two QTLs on chromosome 21 had significant additive and dominance effects, which were about equal for each QTL. The QTL on chromosome 18 showed larger additive than dominance effects. Following the precedent set by the naming of the G. longicalyx Hutchinson & Lee and G. aridum [(Rose & Standley) Skovsted] sources of resistance, we suggest the usage of Ren (barb1) and Ren (barb2) to designate these QTLs on chromosome 21 and Ren (barb3) on chromosome 18.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 02/2011; 122(2):271-80. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular markers closely linked to genes that confer a high level of resistance to root-knot nematode (RKN) [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm derived from Auburn 623 RNR would greatly facilitate cotton breeding programs. Our objectives were to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers linked to RKN resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) and map these markers to specific chromosomes. We developed three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations by single seed descent from the crosses of RKN-resistant parents M-240 RNR (M240), developed from the Auburn 623 RNR source, moderately resistant Clevewilt 6 (CLW6), one of the parents of Auburn 623 RNR, and susceptible parent Stoneville 213 (ST213). These crosses were CLW6 × ST213, M240 × CLW6, and M240 × ST213. RILs from these populations were grown under greenhouse conditions, inoculated with RKN eggs, scored for root gall index, eggs plant(-1), and eggs g(-1) root. Plants were also genotyped with SSR markers. Results indicated that a minimum of two major genes were involved in the RKN resistance of M240. One gene was localized to chromosome 11 and linked to the marker CIR 316-201. This CIR 316-201 allele was also present in CLW6 but not in Mexico Wild (MW) (PI593649), both of which are parents of Auburn 623 RNR. A second RKN resistance gene was localized to the short arm of chromosome 14 and was linked to the SSR markers BNL3545-118 and BNL3661-185. These two marker alleles were not present in CLW6 but were present in MW. Our data also suggest that the chromosome 11 resistance QTL primarily affects root galling while the QTL on chromosome 14 mediates reduced RKN egg production. The SSRs identified in this study should be useful to select plants with high levels of RKN resistance in segregating populations derived from Auburn 623 RNR.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 11/2010; 121(7):1323-37. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determination of chromosomes or chromosome arms with desirable genes in different inbred lines and/or crosses should provide useful genetic information for crop improvement. In this study, we applied a modified additive-dominance model to analyze a data set of 13 cotton chromosome substitution lines and their recurrent parent TM-1, five commercial cultivars, and their 70 F(2) hybrids. The chromosome additive and dominance variance components for eight agronomic and fiber traits were determined. On average, each chromosome or chromosome arm was associated with 6.5 traits in terms of additive and/or dominance effects. The chromosomes or chromosome arms, which contributed significant additive variances for the traits investigated, included 2, 16, 18, 25, 5sh (short arm), 14sh, 15sh, 22sh, and 22Lo (long arm). Chromosome additive effects were also predicted in this study. The results showed that CS-B 25 was favorably associated with several fiber traits, while FM966 was favorably associated with both yield and fiber traits with alleles on multiple chromosomes or chromosome arms. Thus, this study should provide valuable genetic information on pure line development for several improved traits such as yield and fiber quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seed from upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., provides a desirable and important nutrition profile. In this study, several seed traits (protein content, oil content, seed hull fiber content, seed index, seed volume, embryo percentage) for F(3) hybrids of 13 cotton chromosome substitution lines crossed with five elite cultivars over four environments were evaluated. Oil and protein were expressed both as percentage of total seed weight and as an index which is the grams of product/100 seeds. An additive and dominance (AD) genetic model with cytoplasmic effects was designed, assessed by simulations, and employed to analyze these seed traits. Simulated results showed that this model was sufficient for analyzing the data structure with F(3) and parents in multiple environments without replications. Significant cytoplasmic effects were detected for seed oil content, oil index, seed index, seed volume, and seed embryo percentage. Additive effects were significant for protein content, fiber content, protein index, oil index, fiber index, seed index, seed volume, and embryo percentage. Dominance effects were significant for oil content, oil index, seed index, and seed volume. Cytoplasmic and additive effects for parents and dominance effects in homozygous and heterozygous forms were predicted. Favorable genetic effects were predicted in this study and the results provided evidence that these seed traits can be genetically improved. In addition, chromosome associations with AD effects were detected and discussed in this study.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2010; 120(7):1473-83. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently released a set of 17 chromosome substitution (CS-B) lines (2n = 52) that contain Gossypium barbadense L. doubled-haploid line '3-79' germplasm systematically introgressed into the Upland inbred 'TM-1' of G. hirsutum (L.). TM-1 yields much more than 3-79, but cotton from the latter has superior fiber properties. To explore the use of these quasi-isogenic lines in studying gene interactions, we created a partial diallel among six CS-B lines and the inbred TM-1, and characterized their descendents for lint percentage, boll weight, seedcotton yield and lint yield across four environments. Phenotypic data on the traits were analyzed according to the ADAA genetic model to detect significant additive, dominance, and additive-by-additive epistasis effects at the chromosome and chromosome-by-chromosome levels of CS-B lines. For example, line 3-79 had the lowest boll weight, seedcotton yield and lint yield, but CS-B22Lo homozygous dominance genetic effects on seedcotton and lint yield were nearly four times those of TM-1, and its hybrids with TM-1 had the highest additive-by-additive epistatic effects on seedcotton and lint yield. CS-B14sh, 17, 22Lo and 25 produced positive homozygous dominance effects on lint yield, whereas doubly heterozygous combinations of CS-B14sh with CS-B17, 22Lo and 25 produced negative dominance effects, suggesting that epistatic effects between genes in these chromosomes strongly affect lint yield. The results underscore the opportunities to systematically identify genomic regions harboring genes that impart agronomically significant effects via epistatic interactions. The chromosome-by-chromosome approach significantly complements other strategies to detect and quantify epistatic interaction effects, and the quasi-isogenic nature of families and lines from CS-B intermatings will facilitate high-resolution localization, development of markers for selection and map-assisted identification of genes involved in strong epistatic effects.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 04/2010; 120(6):1193-205. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research detected QTL or molecular markers associated with yield, fiber, and seed traits within multiple fuzz and fiber loci genetic backgrounds. Two F₂ populations from crosses of MD17, a fuzzless-lintless line containing three fuzzless loci, N ₁ , n ₂ and a postulated n ₃ , with line 181, fuzzless-linted and with FM966, a fuzzy-linted cultivar, were used. QTL explaining 68.3 (population with FM966) to 87.1% (population with 181) of the phenotypic variation for lint percentage and 62.8% (population with 181) for lint index were detected in the vicinity of BNL3482-138 on chromosome 26. Single marker regression analyses indicated STV79-108, on the long arm of chromosome 12 had significant association with lint percentage (R ² 26.7%), lint index (R ² 30.6%), embryo protein percentage (R ² 15.4%) and micronaire (R ² 20.0%). Two-locus epistatic interactions were also observed. Results from this research will facilitate further understanding the complex mechanisms of yield, fiber, and seed traits of cotton.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selecting high yielding upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. lines with improved fiber quality is a primary breeding goal. A diverse set of ten cultivars and one breeding line were crossed in a half diallel. Parents and F₂ hybrids were grown in three environments at Mississippi State, MS. Ten agronomic and fiber traits were analyzed by a mixed linear model approach based on the additive-dominance genetic model. Variance component, genetic effects and genetic correlations were calculated. 'Acala Ultima' was a desirable general combiner for fiber length, uniformity, strength, micronaire, lint percentage, and boll weight. 'FiberMax 966' was a desirable general combiner for fiber length, uniformity, strength, and all agronomic traits. 'Tamcot Pyramid' and M240 were poor general combiners for both fiber and agronomic traits. 'Coker 315' was a good general combiner for fiber length, uniformity, micronaire, boll weight, boll number, and yield. Heterozygous dominance effects were associated with several crosses, which suggest their use as hybrids.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cotton (Gossypium spp.) plant growth is an important time-specific agronomic character that supports the development of squares, flowers, boll retention, and yield. With the use of a mixed linear model approach, we investigated 14 cotton chromosome substitution (CS-B) lines and their chromosome-specific F(2) hybrids for genetic changes in plant growth that was measured during the primary flowering time under two environments. The changes in additive and dominance variances for plant height and number of mainstem nodes are reported, showing that additive effects for these two traits were a key genetic component after initial flowering occurred in the field. Time-specific genetic variance components were also detected where phenotypic values observed at time t were conditioned on the events occurring at time t - 1, demonstrating new genetic variations arising at several time intervals during plant growth. Results also revealed that plant height and number of nodes shared some common influence due to additive effects during plant development. With the comparative analyzes, chromosomes associated with the genetic changes in plant growth were detected. Therefore, these results should add new understanding of the genetics underlying these time-specific traits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic mapping is an essential tool for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) molecular breeding and application of DNA markers for cotton improvement. In this present study, we evaluated an RI population including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F₂-derived families and their two parental lines, 'HS 46' and 'MARCABUCAG8US-1-88', at Mississippi State, MS, for two years. Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits were measured. One hundred forty one (141) polymorphic SSR markers were screened for this population and 125 markers were used to construct a linkage map. Twenty six linkage groups were constructed, covering 125 SSR loci and 965 cM of overall map distance. Twenty four linkage groups (115 SSR loci) were assigned to specific chromosomes. Quantitative genetic analysis showed that the genotypic effects accounted for more than 20% of the phenotypic variation for all traits except fiber perimeter (18%). Fifty six QTLs (LOD > 3.0) associated with 14 agronomic and fiber traits were located on 17 chromosomes. One QTL associated with fiber elongation was located on linkage group LGU01. Nine chromosomes in sub-A genome harbored 27 QTLs with 10 associated with agronomic traits and 17 with fiber traits. Eight chromosomes in D sub-genome harbored 29 QTLs with 13 associated with agronomic traits and 16 with fiber traits. Chromosomes 3, 5, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20, and 26 harbor important QTLs for both yield and fiber quality compared to other chromosomes. Since this RI population was developed from an intraspecific cross within upland cotton, these QTLs should be useful for marker assisted selection for improving breeding efficiency in cotton line development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flowering time has biological and agricultural significance for crops. In Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), photoperiodic sensitivity is a major obstacle in the utilization of primitive accessions in breeding programs. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis was conducted in two F₂ populations from the crosses between a day-neutral cultivar Deltapine 61 (DPL61) and two photoperiod sensitive G. hirsutum accessions (T1107 and T1354). Node of first fruiting branch (NFB) was used to measure relative time of flowering. Different flowering time genetic patterns were observed in the two populations. Two QTLs were found across five scoring dates, accounting 28.5 (qNFB-c21-1) and 15.9% (qNFB-c25-1) of the phenotypic variation at the last scoring date in Pop. 1107 (DPL61 by T1107); whereas, one major QTL (qNFB-c25-1) can be detected across five scoring dates, explained 63.5% of the phenotypic variation at the last scoring date in Pop. 1354 (DPL61 by T1354). QTLs with minor effects appeared at various scoring date(s), indicating their roles in regulating flowering at a lower or higher node number. Genetic segregation analysis and QTL mapping results provide further information on the mechanisms of cotton photoperiodic sensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A combination of previously mapped and unmapped non-redundant SSR loci, using 381 primer pairs were chromosomally and sub-chromosomally localized by deficiency analysis of two sets of quasi-isogenic interspecific Gossypium hirsutum L. hypoaneuploid F₁ hybrids involving Gossypium barbadense L. and Gossypium tomentosum (Nuttall ex Seemann). Polymorphisms were detected for 369 SSR primer pairs. A total of 318 SSR loci were rendered deficient by the available hypoaneuploid stocks, which included primary monosomics (2n = 51), monotelodisomics and duplication-deficient (segmental trisomic-monosomic) (2n = 52) types. Chromosomal associations were newly determined for 123 SSR loci, of which 90, 106 and 73 were polymorphic in G. tomentosum, G. barbadense, and both sets, respectively. The deficiency tests independently confirmed the recent identifications of linkage groups (LG) A01, A02, A03 and D08 to be chromosome (Chr)-13, Chr-8, Chr-11 and Chr-19, respectively, and collectively delimited LG D02 and D03 to Chr-21 and 24, and their homeologs to Chr-8 and 11. Segmental homeology was detected between Chr-2 and Chr-17 loci, adding to evidence of segmental homeology between Chr-2 and 3 versus Chr-14 and 17. The 318 non-redundant SSR loci localized in this study will enhance the construction of linkage maps and QTL identification in molecular marker assisted selection since the confirmed and newly discovered SSR loci can serve as anchor loci for their respective chromosomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Boll number, lint percentage, and boll weight are three component traits for lint yield of upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Selecting high yielding lines or hybrids depends on the ability to dissect the genetic relationship of lint yield with these component traits. In this study, 14 day-neutral lines with desirable fiber quality derived from primitive accessions were top crossed with five commercial cultivars. The F₂ populations and parents were grown in one location in 1998 and two locations in 1999 at Mississippi State, MS. The F₃ populations and parents were grown in two locations in 2000. Lint yield and three component traits were measured and analyzed by the ADAA genetic model with the mixed model based conditional approach. Results showed that boll number or boll number with lint percentage or boll weight contributed to the majority of the phenotypic variance and variance components for lint yield. Boll number was more important than the other two component traits in terms of various genetic effects. The results also showed that the combination of boll number and boll weight greatly increased the contribution to lint yield even though boll weight itself had no significant contribution to lint yield compared to boll number alone. The genetic contribution effects were also predicted due to single component traits or their combinations for parents and crosses. The results revealed that the balanced selection of boll weight and boll number should be considered to obtain high yielding hybrids or pure lines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dissection of the genetic relationship between lint yield and its yield components at the chromosome level may provide an additional avenue for yield enhancement in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Based on the conditional additive-dominance (AD) genetic model, we investigated the genetic structures of lint yield with its three component traits, lint percentage, boll weight, and boll number, using a two-location data set containing cotton chromosome substitution lines (chromosome or chromosome arm substituted from G. barbadense L. into G. hirsutum L., TM-1) which are defined as CS-B lines and their F₂ hybrids with CS-B recurrent parent TM-1. We calculated the conditional variance components, contribution ratios, and contribution effects subject to the additive and dominant components. Our results showed that boll number or boll number with boll weight greatly reduced the conditional variance components and phenotypic variance for lint yield and thus indicated that boll number plays a more important role in lint yield than the other two component traits. We demonstrated that the G. barbadense chromosomes in CS-B16, CS-B18, and CS-B4sh were directly associated with reduced lint yield. Substituted chromosome arms 14sh, 22sh, and 22Lo were associated with reduced additive effects for lint yield through the component of boll weight, thus suggesting that some substituted chromosomes or chromosome arms may be indirectly associated with lint yield through yield component traits. This study provides a better understanding of cotton yield and its component traits at the chromosome level and this information should be useful in cotton breeding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RMUP-C5 (Random Mated Upland Population Cycle 5) (Reg. No. GP-893, PI 652942) is a unique random mated germplasm population of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) involving six cycles of random mating beginning with an 11 parent half diallel. This germplasm was developed through cooperative research by the USDA-ARS, Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, North Carolina State Agricultural Experiment Station, and Cotton Incorporated. Parents used in development represented nonrelated or distantly related cultivars or breeding lines from across the U.S. Cotton Belt. The bulked pollen method of pollination was used in the development, and there were six cycles of random mating, with intercrossing of the F1 considered cycle zero. Selfed seed of C5S1 has been released. Changes in correlations between traits among parents, C0, and C5 cycles show that after random mating, the C5 population has recombinations that should be useful for selection and cultivar development. Because this germplasm represents random mating among 11 very diverse breeding programs and includes parents from the major seed breeding companies, this population should be of value to breeders across the U.S. Cotton Belt.