J. P. Dumm

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (87)430.36 Total impact

  • Source
    M. G. Aartsen · K. Abraham · M. Ackermann · J. Adams · J. A. Aguilar · M. Ahlers · M. Ahrens · D. Altmann · T. Anderson · M. Archinger · [...] · T. R. Wood · K. Woschnagg · D. L. Xu · X. W. Xu · Y. Xu · J. P. Yanez · G. Yodh · S. Yoshida · P. Zarzhitsky · M. Zoll
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    ABSTRACT: Results from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have recently provided compelling evidence for the existence of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux utilizing a dominantly Southern Hemisphere dataset consisting primarily of nu_e and nu_tau charged current and neutral current (cascade) neutrino interactions. In the analysis presented here, a data sample of approximately 35,000 muon neutrinos from the Northern sky was extracted from data taken during 659.5 days of livetime recorded between May 2010 and May 2012. While this sample is composed primarily of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions in the Earth's atmosphere, the highest energy events are inconsistent with a hypothesis of solely terrestrial origin at 3.7σ significance. These neutrinos can, however, be explained by an astrophysical flux per neutrino flavor at a level of Φ(E) = 9.9^{+3.9}_{-3.4}×10^{-19} GeV^{-1} cm^{-2} sr^{-1} s^{-1} ({E/100 TeV})^{-2}, consistent with IceCube's Southern Hemisphere dominated result. Additionally, a fit for an astrophysical flux with an arbitrary spectral index was performed. We find a spectral index of 2.2^{+0.2}_{-0.2}, which is also in good agreement with the Southern Hemisphere result.
    Physical Review Letters 08/2015; 115:081102. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.081102 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    M. G. Aartsen · K. Abraham · M. Ackermann · J. Adams · J. A. Aguilar · M. Ahlers · M. Ahrens · D. Altmann · T. Anderson · M. Archinger · [...] · T. R. Wood · K. Woschnagg · D. L. Xu · X. W. Xu · Y. Xu · J. P. Yanez · G. Yodh · S. Yoshida · P. Zarzhitsky · M. Zoll
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence for an extraterrestrial flux of high-energy neutrinos has now been found in multiple searches with the IceCube detector. The first solid evidence was provided by a search for neutrino events with deposited energies ≳30 TeV and interaction vertices inside the instrumented volume. Recent analyses suggest that the extraterrestrial flux extends to lower energies and is also visible with throughgoing, νμ-induced tracks from the Northern hemisphere. Here, we combine the results from six different IceCube searches for astrophysical neutrinos in a maximum-likelihood analysis. The combined event sample features high-statistics samples of shower-like and track-like events. The data are fit in up to three observables: energy, zenith angle and event topology. Assuming the astrophysical neutrino flux to be isotropic and to consist of equal flavors at Earth, the all-flavor spectrum with neutrino energies between 25 TeV and 2.8 PeV is well described by an unbroken power law with best-fit spectral index −2.50±0.09 and a flux at 100 TeV of (6.7+1.1−1.2)⋅10−18GeV−1s−1sr−1cm−2. Under the same assumptions, an unbroken power law with index −2 is disfavored with a significance of 3.8 σ (p=0.0066%) with respect to the best fit. This significance is reduced to 2.1 σ (p=1.7%) if instead we compare the best fit to a spectrum with index −2 that has an exponential cut-off at high energies. Allowing the electron neutrino flux to deviate from the other two flavors, we find a νe fraction of 0.18±0.11 at Earth. The sole production of electron neutrinos, which would be characteristic of neutron-decay dominated sources, is rejected with a significance of 3.6 σ (p=0.014%).
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2015; 809(1):89. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/809/1/98 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Results from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have recently provided compelling evidence for the existence of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux utilizing a dominantly Southern Hemisphere dataset consisting primarily of nu_e and nu_tau charged current and neutral current (cascade) neutrino interactions. In the analysis presented here, a data sample of approximately 35,000 muon neutrinos from the Northern sky was extracted from data taken during 659.5 days of livetime recorded between May 2010 and May 2012. While this sample is composed primarily of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions in the Earth's atmosphere, the highest energy events are inconsistent with a hypothesis of solely terrestrial origin at 3.7 sigma significance. These neutrinos can, however, be explained by an astrophysical flux per neutrino flavor at a level of Phi(E_nu) = 9.9^{+3.9}_{-3.4} times 10^{-19} GeV^{-1} cm^{-2} sr^{-1} s^{-1} ({E_nu / 100 TeV})^{-2}, consistent with IceCube's Southern Hemisphere dominated result. Additionally, a fit for an astrophysical flux with an arbitrary spectral index was performed. We find a spectral index of 2.2^{+0.2}_{-0.2}, which is also in good agreement with the Southern Hemisphere result.
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence for an extraterrestrial flux of high-energy neutrinos has now been found in multiple searches with the IceCube detector. The first solid evidence was provided by a search for neutrino events with deposited energies ≳30 TeV and interaction vertices inside the instrumented volume. Recent analyses suggest that the extraterrestrial flux extends to lower energies and is also visible with throughgoing, νμ-induced tracks from the Northern hemisphere. Here, we combine the results from six different IceCube searches for astrophysical neutrinos in a maximum-likelihood analysis. The combined event sample features high-statistics samples of shower-like and track-like events. The data are fit in up to three observables: energy, zenith angle and event topology. Assuming the astrophysical neutrino flux to be isotropic and to consist of equal flavors at Earth, the all-flavor spectrum with neutrino energies between 25 TeV and 2.8 PeV is well described by an unbroken power law with best-fit spectral index −2.50±0.09 and a flux at 100 TeV of (6.7+1.1−1.2)⋅10−18GeV−1s−1sr−1cm−2. Under the same assumptions, an unbroken power law with index −2 is disfavored with a significance of 3.8 σ (p=0.0066%) with respect to the best fit. This significance is reduced to 2.1 σ (p=1.7%) if instead we compare the best fit to a spectrum with index −2 that has an exponential cut-off at high energies. Allowing the electron neutrino flux to deviate from the other two flavors, we find a νe fraction of 0.18±0.11 at Earth. The sole production of electron neutrinos, which would be characteristic of neutron-decay dominated sources, is rejected with a significance of 3.6 σ (p=0.014%).
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper searches for flaring astrophysical neutrino sources and sources with periodic emission with the IceCube neutrino telescope are presented. In contrast to time integrated searches, where steady emission is assumed, the analyses presented here look for a time dependent signal of neutrinos using the information from the neutrino arrival times to enhance the discovery potential. A search was performed for correlations between neutrino arrival times and directions as well as neutrino emission following time dependent lightcurves, sporadic emission or periodicities of candidate sources. These include active galactic nuclei, soft γ-ray repeaters, supernova remnants hosting pulsars, micro-quasars and X-ray binaries. The work presented here updates and extends previously published results to a longer period that covers four years of data from 2008 April 5 to 2012 May 16 including the first year of operation of the completed 86-string detector. The analyses did not find any significant time dependent point sources of neutrinos and the results were used to set upper limits on the neutrino flux from source candidates.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2015; 807(1):46. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/807/1/46 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a measurement of the atmospheric νe spectrum at energies between 0.1 TeV and 100 TeV using data from the first year of the complete IceCube detector. Atmospheric νe originate mainly from the decays of kaons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. This analysis selects 1078 fully contained events in 332 days of livetime, then identifies those consistent with particle showers. A likelihood analysis with improved event selection extends our previous measurement of the conventional νe fluxes to higher energies. The data constrain the conventional νe flux to be 1.3+0.4−0.3 times a baseline prediction from a Honda's calculation, including the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum. A fit to the kaon contribution (ξ) to the neutrino flux finds a kaon component that is ξ=1.3+0.5−0.4 times the baseline value. The fitted/measured prompt neutrino flux from charmed hadron decays strongly depends on the assumed astrophysical flux and shape. If the astrophysical component follows a power law, the result for the prompt flux is 0.0+3.0−0.0 times a calculated flux based on the work by Enberg, Reno and Sarcevic.
    Physical Review D 06/2015; 91(12):122004. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.91.122004 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Muons produced in atmospheric cosmic ray showers account for the by far dominant part of the event yield in large-volume underground particle detectors. The IceCube detector, with an instrumented volume of about a cubic kilometer, has the potential to conduct unique investigations on atmospheric muons by exploiting the large collection area and the possibility to track particles over a long distance. Through detailed reconstruction of energy deposition along the tracks, the characteristics of muon bundles can be quantified, and individual particles of exceptionally high energy identified. The data can then be used to constrain the cosmic ray primary flux and the contribution to atmospheric lepton fluxes from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. In this paper, techniques for the extraction of physical measurements from atmospheric muon events are described and first results are presented. The multiplicity spectrum of TeV muons in cosmic ray air showers for primaries in the energy range from the knee to the ankle is derived and found to be consistent with recent results from surface detectors. The single-muon energy spectrum is determined up to PeV energies and shows a clear indication for the emergence of a distinct spectral component from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. The magnitude of the prompt flux, which should include a substantial contribution from light vector meson di-muon decays, is consistent with current theoretical predictions. The variety of measurements and high event statistics can also be exploited for the evaluation of systematic effects. In the course of this study, internal inconsistencies were found which indicate the presence of an unexplained effect outside the range of detector systematics. The underlying cause could be related to the hadronic interaction models used to describe muon production in air showers.
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    ABSTRACT: The IceCube neutrino observatory pursues a follow-up program selecting interesting neutrino events in real-time and issuing alerts for electromagnetic follow-up observations. In March 2012, the most significant neutrino alert during the first three years of operation was issued by IceCube. In the follow-up observations performed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), a Type IIn supernova (SN) PTF12csy was found 0.2∘ away from the neutrino alert direction, with an error radius of 0.54∘. It has a redshift of z=0.0684, corresponding to a luminosity distance of about 300Mpc and the Pan-STARRS1 survey shows that its explosion time was at least 158 days (in host galaxy rest frame) before the neutrino alert, so that a causal connection is unlikely. The a posteriori significance of the chance detection of both the neutrinos and the SN at any epoch is 2.2σ within IceCube's 2011/12 data acquisition season. Also, a complementary neutrino analysis reveals no long-term signal over the course of one year. Therefore, we consider the SN detection coincidental and the neutrinos uncorrelated to the SN. However, the SN is unusual and interesting by itself: It is luminous and energetic, bearing strong resemblance to the SN IIn 2010jl, and shows signs of interaction of the SN ejecta with a dense circumstellar medium. High-energy neutrino emission is expected in models of diffusive shock acceleration, but at a low, non-detectable level for this specific SN. In this paper, we describe the SN PTF12csy and present both the neutrino and electromagnetic data, as well as their analysis.
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    ABSTRACT: The Milky Way is expected to be embedded in a halo of dark matter particles, with the highest density in the central region, and decreasing density with the halo-centric radius. Dark matter might be indirectly detectable at Earth through a flux of stable particles generated in dark matter annihilations and peaked in the direction of the Galactic Center. We present a search for an excess flux of muon (anti-) neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Galactic Center using the cubic-kilometer-sized IceCube neutrino detector at the South Pole. There, the Galactic Center is always seen above the horizon. Thus, new and dedicated veto techniques against atmospheric muons are required to make the southern hemisphere accessible for IceCube. We used 319.7 live-days of data from IceCube operating in its 79-string configuration during 2010 and 2011. No neutrino excess was found and the final result is compatible with the background. We present upper limits on the self-annihilation cross-section, ⟨σAv⟩, for WIMP masses ranging from 30 GeV up to 10 TeV, assuming cuspy (NFW) and flat-cored (Burkert) dark matter halo profiles, reaching down to ≃4⋅10−24 cm^3 s^−1, and ≃2.6⋅10^−23 cm^3 s^−1 for the νν⎯⎯ channel, respectively.
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    ABSTRACT: A diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos above 100 TeV has been observed at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Here we extend this analysis to probe the astrophysical flux down to 35 TeV and analyze its flavor composition by classifying events as showers or tracks. Taking advantage of lower atmospheric backgrounds for showerlike events, we obtain a shower-biased sample containing 129 showers and 8 tracks collected in three years from 2010 to 2013. We demonstrate consistency with the (fe∶fμ∶fτ)⊕≈(1∶1∶1)⊕ flavor ratio at Earth commonly expected from the averaged oscillations of neutrinos produced by pion decay in distant astrophysical sources. Limits are placed on nonstandard flavor compositions that cannot be produced by averaged neutrino oscillations but could arise in exotic physics scenarios. A maximally tracklike composition of (0∶1∶0)⊕ is excluded at 3.3σ, and a purely showerlike composition of (1∶0∶0)⊕ is excluded at 2.3σ.
    Physical Review Letters 04/2015; 114(17):171102. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.171102 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a measurement of the atmospheric νe spectrum at energies between 0.1 TeV and 100 TeV using data from the first year of the complete IceCube detector. Atmospheric νe originate mainly from the decays of kaons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. This analysis selects 1078 fully contained events in 332 days of livetime, then identifies those consistent with particle showers. A likelihood analysis with improved event selection extends our previous measurement of the conventional νe fluxes to higher energies. The data constrain the conventional νe flux to be 1.3+0.4−0.3 times a baseline prediction from a Honda's calculation, including the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum. A fit to the kaon contribution (ξ) to the neutrino flux finds a kaon component that is ξ=1.3+0.5−0.4 times the baseline value. The fitted/measured prompt neutrino flux from charmed hadron decays strongly depends on the assumed astrophysical flux and shape. If the astrophysical component follows a power law, the result for the prompt flux is 0.0+3.0−0.0 times a calculated flux based on the work by Enberg, Reno and Sarcevic.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper searches for flaring astrophysical neutrino sources and sources with periodic emission with the IceCube neutrino telescope are presented. In contrast to time integrated searches, where steady emission is assumed, the analyses presented here look for a time dependent signal of neutrinos using the information from the neutrino arrival times to enhance the discovery potential. A search was performed for correlations between neutrino arrival times and directions as well as neutrino emission following time dependent lightcurves, sporadic emission or periodicities of candidate sources. These include active galactic nuclei, soft γ-ray repeaters, supernova remnants hosting pulsars, micro-quasars and X-ray binaries. The work presented here updates and extends previously published results to a longer period that covers four years of data from 2008 April 5 to 2012 May 16 including the first year of operation of the completed 86-string detector. The analyses did not find any significant time dependent point sources of neutrinos and the results were used to set upper limits on the neutrino flux from source candidates.
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos above 100TeV has been observed at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Here we extend this analysis to probe the astrophysical flux down to 35TeV and analyze its flavor composition by classifying events as showers or tracks. Taking advantage of lower atmospheric backgrounds for shower-like events, we obtain a shower-biased sample containing 129 showers and 8 tracks collected in three years from 2010 to 2013. We demonstrate consistency with the (fe:fμ:fτ)⊕≈(1:1:1)⊕ flavor ratio at Earth commonly expected from the averaged oscillations of neutrinos produced by pion decay in distant astrophysical sources. Limits are placed on non-standard flavor compositions that cannot be produced by averaged neutrino oscillations but could arise in exotic physics scenarios. A maximally track-like composition of (0:1:0)⊕ is excluded at 3.3σ, and a purely shower-like composition of (1:0:0)⊕ is excluded at 2.3σ.
    Physical Review Letters 02/2015; ArXiv(17). · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the response of the IceCube neutrino telescope located at the geographic south pole to outbursts of MeV neutrinos from the core collapse of nearby massive stars. IceCube was completed in December 2010 forming a lattice of 5160 photomultiplier tubes that monitor a volume of ~1 km3 in the deep Antarctic ice for particle induced photons. The telescope was designed to detect neutrinos with energies greater than 100 GeV. Owing to subfreezing ice temperatures, the photomultiplier dark noise rates are particularly low. Hence IceCube can also detect large numbers of MeV neutrinos by observing a collective rise in all photomultiplier rates on top of the dark noise. With 2 ms timing resolution, IceCube can detect subtle features in the temporal development of the supernova neutrino burst. For a supernova at the galactic center, its sensitivity matches that of a background-free megaton-scale supernova search experiment. The sensitivity decreases to 20 standard deviations at the galactic edge (30 kpc) and 6 standard deviations at the Large Magellanic Cloud (50 kpc). IceCube is sending triggers from potential supernovae to the Supernova Early Warning System. The sensitivity to neutrino properties such as the neutrino hierarchy is discussed, as well as the possibility to detect the neutronization burst, a short outbreak of electron neutrinos released by electron capture on protons soon after collapse. Tantalizing signatures, such as the formation of a quark star or a black hole as well as the characteristics of shock waves, are investigated to illustrate IceCube's capability for supernova detection.
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    ABSTRACT: We report on searches for neutrino sources at energies above 200 GeV in the Northern sky of the galactic plane, using the data collected by the South Pole neutrino telescopes IceCube and AMANDA. The galactic region considered here includes the Local Arm towards the Cygnus region and our closest approach to the Perseus Arm. The data have been collected between 2007 and 2009 when AMANDA was an integrated part of IceCube, which was still under construction and operated with 22-strings (2007-8) and 40-strings (2008-9) of optical modules deployed in the ice. By combining the larger IceCube detector with the lower energy threshold of the more compact AMANDA detector, we obtain an improved sensitivity at energies below $\sim$10 TeV with respect to previous searches. The analyses presented here are: a scan for point sources within the galactic plane; a search optimized for multiple and extended sources in the Cygnus region, which might be below the sensitivity of the point source scan; and studies of seven pre-selected neutrino source candidates. For one of them, Cygnus X-3, a time-dependent search for neutrinos in coincidence with observed radio and X-ray flares has been performed. No evidence of a signal is found, and upper limits are reported for each of the searches. We investigate neutrino spectra proportional to E$^{-2}$ and E$^{-3}$ to cover the entire range of possible spectra. The soft E$^{-3}$ spectrum results in an energy distribution similar to a source with cut-off below $\sim$50 TeV. For the considered region of the galactic plane, the 90% confidence level muon neutrino flux upper limits are in the range E$^3$dN/dE$\sim 5.4 - 19.5 \times 10^{-11} \rm{TeV^{2} cm^{-2} s^{-1}}$ for point-like neutrino sources in the energy region [180.0 GeV - 20.5 TeV]. These represent the most stringent upper limits for soft-spectra neutrino sources within the Galaxy reported to date.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 763(1):33. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/763/1/33 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first results in the search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with the IceCube detector, a subsurface neutrino telescope located in the South Polar ice cap containing a volume of 1 km$^{3}$. This analysis searches data taken on the partially completed detector during 2007 when roughly 0.2 km$^{3}$ of ice was instrumented. The lack of candidate events leads to an upper limit on the flux of relativistic magnetic monopoles of $\Phi_{\mathrm{90%C.L.}}\sim 3\e{-18}\fluxunits$ for $\beta\geq0.8$. This is a factor of 4 improvement over the previous best experimental flux limits up to a Lorentz boost $\gamma$ below $10^{7}$. This result is then interpreted for a wide range of mass and kinetic energy values.
    Physical Review D 08/2013; 87(2):022001. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.87.022001 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: 1207.3455v2
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    ABSTRACT: We report the first measurement of the atmospheric electron neutrino flux in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV, using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low energy extension. Techniques to identify neutrinos interacting within the DeepCore volume and veto muons originating outside the detector are demonstrated. A sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data, of which 496 $\pm$ 66(stat.) $\pm$ 88(syst.) are estimated to be cascade events, including both electron neutrino and neutral current events. The rest of the sample includes residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range. This constitutes the first observation of electron neutrinos and neutral current interactions in a very large volume neutrino telescope optimized for the TeV energy range.
    Physical Review Letters 04/2013; 110:151105. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.151105 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum with the IceTop air shower array, the surface component of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. The data used in this analysis were taken between June and October, 2007, with 26 surface stations operational at that time, corresponding to about one third of the final array. The fiducial area used in this analysis was 0.122 km^2. The analysis investigated the energy spectrum from 1 to 100 PeV measured for three different zenith angle ranges between 0{\deg} and 46{\deg}. Because of the isotropy of cosmic rays in this energy range the spectra from all zenith angle intervals have to agree. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum was determined under different assumptions on the primary mass composition. Good agreement of spectra in the three zenith angle ranges was found for the assumption of pure proton and a simple two-component model. For zenith angles {\theta} < 30{\deg}, where the mass dependence is smallest, the knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrum was observed between 3.5 and 4.32 PeV, depending on composition assumption. Spectral indices above the knee range from -3.08 to -3.11 depending on primary mass composition assumption. Moreover, an indication of a flattening of the spectrum above 22 PeV were observed.
    Astroparticle Physics 04/2013; 44:40-58. DOI:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.01.016 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma-ray induced air showers are notable for their lack of muons, compared to hadronic showers. Hence, air shower arrays with large underground muon detectors can select a sample greatly enriched in photon showers by rejecting showers containing muons. IceCube is sensitive to muons with energies above ~500 GeV at the surface, which provides an efficient veto system for hadronic air showers with energies above 1 PeV. One year of data from the 40-string IceCube configuration was used to perform a search for point sources and a Galactic diffuse signal. No sources were found, resulting in a 90% C.L. upper limit on the ratio of gamma rays to cosmic rays of 1.2 x 10^(-3)for the flux coming from the Galactic Plane region (-80 deg < l < -30 deg; -10 deg < b < 5 deg) in the energy range 1.2 - 6.0 PeV. In the same energy range, point source fluxes with E^(-2) spectra have been excluded at a level of (E/TeV)^2 d\Phi/dE ~ 10^(-12)-10^(-11) cm^2/s/TeV depending on source declination. The complete IceCube detector will have a better sensitivity, due to the larger detector size, improved reconstruction and vetoing techniques. Preliminary data from the nearly-final IceCube detector configuration has been used to estimate the 5 year sensitivity of the full detector. It is found to be more than an order of magnitude better, allowing the search for PeV extensions of known TeV gamma-ray emitters.
    Physical Review D 03/2013; 87:062002. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.87.062002 · 4.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
430.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      • Department of Physics
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Adelaide
      • School of Chemistry and Physics
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 2012
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Physics
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • RWTH Aachen University
      • III. Physikalisches Institut A: Particle Physics
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Bergische Universität Wuppertal
      Wuppertal, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands