[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the use of phage libraries to derive new antibodies against p21Ras to be used for intracellular expression in mammalian cells. A panel of single-chain antibody fragments, binding to Ras, were analyzed and characterized for their capacity to interfere in vitro with (a) the intrinsic GTPase activity of Ras and (b) the binding of Ras to its effector Raf, and were found not to neutralize its function, according to these biochemical criteria. When expressed intracellularly in mouse 3T3 K-Ras transformed cells all the anti-Ras single-chain variable fragments (scFv) tested inhibited cell proliferation, as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Double immunofluorescence analysis of transfected cells using confocal microscopy confirmed that anti-Ras antibody fragments colocalize with endogenous Ras, at subcellular locations where the protein Ras is not normally found. These data suggest that the ability of phage-derived anti-Ras scFv fragments to inhibit the function of Ras in vivo is a rather general and frequent property and that the range of antibodies that can be successfully used for intracellular inhibition studies is much greater than anticipated, exploiting the mode of action of diverting protein traffic.
European Journal of Biochemistry 03/2000; 267(4):1196-205. DOI:10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01125.x · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ras proteins cycle in the cell between an inactive state and an active state. In the active state, Ras signals via the switch I region to effectors like c-Raf kinase, leading to cell growth. Since Ras mutations in cancer are often associated with the presence of permanently active Ras, molecules that prevent downstream signaling may be of interest. Here, we show that by selection on the active conformation of Ras, using a recently described large phage antibody repertoire [de Haard et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 18218-18230], a Fab antibody (Fab H2) was identified that exclusively binds to active Ras, and not to inactive Ras. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, the interaction was demonstrated to be of high affinity (7.2 nM). In addition, the interaction with Ras is specific, since binding to the homologous Rap1A protein in BIAcore analysis is at least three orders of magnitude lower, and undetectable in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antibody fragment prevents the binding of active Ras to the immobilized Ras-binding domain of c-Raf kinase (Raf-RBD) at an IC(50) value of 135 nM. This value compares well to the K(D) of active Ras-binding to immobilized Raf-RBD using SPR, suggesting identical binding sites. Like the IgG Y13-259, which does not demonstrate preferential binding to either inactive or active Ras, Fab H2 inhibits intrinsic GTPase activity of Ras in vitro. Mapping studies using SPR analysis demonstrate that the binding sites for the antibodies are non-identical. This antibody could be used for dissecting functional differences between Ras effectors. Due to its specificity for active Ras, Fab H2 may well be more selective than previously used anti-Ras antibodies, and thus could be used for gene therapy of cancer with intracellular antibodies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phage antibodies have been widely prospected as an alternative to the use of monoclonal antibodies prepared by traditional means. Many monoclonal antibodies prepared against peptides are able to recognise the native proteins from which they were derived. Here we show that the same is also true for phage antibodies. We have selected a number of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) from a large phage scFv library against a peptide from the switch region II of p21Ras. This peptide is known to reside in a mobile area of the native protein and is the epitope of a well characterised monoclonal antibody. Selected scFvs were able to recognise native p21Ras in both ELISA and Western blots, indicating that peptides are also likely to be very useful in selecting from phage antibody libraries.