I Börcsök

Universität Heidelberg, Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (9)32.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Two isoforms of the androgen receptor (AR-A and AR-B), differing by a lack of the first 187 amino acids in the NH2-terminal transactivation domain of AR-A, are expressed in connective tissue and bone. Transient transfections of normal human osteoblastic cells (HOB) and of genital skin fibroblasts defective in AR (GSF-540) were utilized to compare the functional properties of AR isoforms in mesenchymal tissues. Overexpression of AR-B or AR-A did not significantly affect type I collagen secretion. However, overexpression of AR-B (but not AR-A) restored androgen-dependent DNA synthesis in AR-defective fibroblasts and increased DHT-mediated DNA synthesis three-fold in osteoblastic cells. Overexpression of AR-A did not affect DHT action but reduced DHT-dependent DNA synthesis when transfected together with AR-B. The need for an NH2-terminal sequence of the AR for complete receptor function was demonstrated using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. A peptide coding for the amino terminus of the complete AR was able to decrease the binding affinity of AR-B and increase the binding affinity of AR-A to the androgen response element. Our results suggest that AR-A lacks the ability to stimulate cell proliferation possibly due to reduced binding of AR co-activating proteins to the truncated N-terminal transactivation domain rather than due to impaired stability of the AR-A isoform.
    Steroids 01/2004; 68(14):1179-87. DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2003.08.016 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone plays a major role in the regulation of bone metabolism but the mechanism by which this is accomplished is not clear. Interactions of thyroid hormone with the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) axis suggest an alternate pathway of action for triiodothyronine (T(3)) on bone formation, besides direct effects. The present study investigates the influence of T(3) on IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and IGF binding protein (IGFBP) transcripts, and on IGF-1 action in human osteoblastic cells (hOB) under serum-free culture conditions. No influence of T(3) on IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3, or IGFBP-4 mRNA levels in hOB was observed. However, T(3) at concentrations of 10(-8) mol/L and 10(-7) mol/L increased IGF-1R mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.01) and enhanced IGFBP-5 mRNA levels at a concentration of 10(-7) mol/L (p < 0.05), as assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Correspondingly, Scatchard analysis of [(125)I]-IGF-1 binding revealed that T(3) at 10(-7) mol/L increased the number of IGF-1 binding sites in hOB, with small changes in receptor affinity. In addition, a synergistic effect of T(3) and IGF-1 on hOB proliferation was found (p < 0.05). We conclude that IGF-1R and IGFBP-5 are thyroid hormone target genes in human osteoblasts, whereas IGF-1 mRNA expression itself appears not to be regulated by T(3) in hOB. However, T(3) stimulates IGF-1R mRNA expression as well as IGF-1 binding and IGF-1 induced cell proliferation in osteoblasts, thus suggesting thyroid hormone may potentiate the effect of IGF-1 at the receptor level. This may contribute to the positive effects of thyroid hormone on bone formation, which, in addition, may be modulated by increased IGFBP-5 expression.
    Bone 12/2001; 29(6):540-6. DOI:10.1016/S8756-3282(01)00607-X · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • T Hierl · I Börcsök · R Ziegler · C Kasperk
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    ABSTRACT: A 31-year-old man presented at the endocrinology out-patient clinic for the initiation of sex-change treatment. His manifestly transsexual male-to-female appearance was confirmed by a psychiatric-sexological expert report. The patient had been living as a woman for one year. Physical examination showed normal male physique with typical secondary hair growth and normal male genitals. The serum testosterone level was at the upper limits of normal, that for oestrogen at the lower limit. Bone densitometry showed bone density at the upper limit of normal. Other laboratory tests were unremarkable. During 30 months on cyproterone, 100 mg daily, bone mass fell at the rate of 5% per year. Bone biopsy revealed high turnover osteoporosis. Bone mass rose by 4% per year after the additional oral intake of oestradiol valerate, 2 mg daily. Osteoblastic cells, isolated from part of the biopsy tissue, with the patient's consent, was found to be stimulated by oestradiol in vitro. The described bone mass changes indicate the important role played by sex hormones in the maintenance of bone mass acquired during adolescence. The findings confirm that in males not only testosterone but also oestrogens has an anabolic effect on bone.
    DMW - Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 05/1999; 124(17):519-22. · 0.55 Impact Factor
  • Th. Hierl · I. Börcsök · R. Ziegler · C. Kasperk
    DMW - Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 01/1999; 124(17):519-522. DOI:10.1055/s-2007-1024353 · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The endothelial cell-derived peptide endothelin 1 (ET1) stimulates cell proliferation and differentiated functions of human osteoblastic cells (HOC), and HOC constitutively express the endothelin A receptor (ETRA). Therefore, ET1 may play an important role in the regulation of bone cell metabolism. As glucocorticoids (GC) exert a profound influence on bone metabolism and increase the effects of ET1 on bone cell metabolism in vitro, the effects of GC on ETRA expression in HOC were investigated. Dexamethasone (DEX) increased ETRA mRNA levels in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. The effects of dexamethasone, prednisolone, and deflazacort on the increase of ETRA mRNA levels correlate positively with their binding affinity to the GC receptor. Scatchard analysis of ET1 binding data to HOC revealed that DEX increased the binding capacity for ET1 from 25,300 to 62,800 binding sites per osteoblastic cell, leading to an enhanced mitogenic effect of ET1 on HOC after preincubation with DEX. Transiently transfected primary HOC with a reporter gene construct, containing the 5'-flanking region of the ETRA gene fused to luciferase gene, showed a promoter-dependent expression of the reporter gene and the induction of reporter gene expression by DEX treatment. Total RNA extracts of femoral head biopsies with osteonecrotic lesions from GC-treated patients showed threefold higher ETRA mRNA levels compared with extracts of bone biopsies from patients with traumatically induced osteonecrosis and coxarthrosis. Furthermore, GC treatment increased plasma ET1 levels by 50% compared with pretreatment values. These findings suggest that GC induced upregulation of ETRA, and ET1 plasma levels enhance ET1's anabolic action on bone cell metabolism. Increased ET1 concentrations may also impair bone perfusion by vasoconstriction in a metabolically activated skeletal region.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/1998; 188(9):1563-73. DOI:10.1084/jem.188.9.1563 · 13.91 Impact Factor
  • T Hierl · I Börcsök · U Sommer · R Ziegler · C Kasperk
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a potent stimulator of bone resorption which has been demonstrated in a variety of in vivo and in vitro models. We investigated the regulation of IL-6 secretion in primary human osteoblastic cells (HOC) in vitro by cytokines known to play an important role in coupling bone formation to bone resorption. HOC were isolated from healthy adults who underwent selective orthopedic surgery and treated with cytokines released in the bone microenvironment during coupling i.e Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha), Transforming Growth Factor beta1 and 2 (TGFbeta 1 and 2) and Endothelin-1 (ET-1). Furthermore, we determined whether systemically-acting steroid hormones of gonadal and adrenal origin as well as glucocorticoids affect the local regulation of IL-6 secretion in primary HOC. To examine the effects of different steroid hormones on IL-6 production, HOC were exposed to estradiol (E2), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dexamethasone (Dexa) with and without a subsequent treatment of the HOC populations with cytokines. We observed that (1) IL-1beta and TNFalpha induced IL-6 in a dose and time-dependent fashion, (2) TGFbeta 1 and 2 enhanced basal and IL-1beta and TNFalpha induced IL-6 expression, (3) ET-1 elicited a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on IL-6 expression. (4) E2, DHT and DHEA alone and in combination with IL-1beta and TNFalpha elicited no reproducible dose-dependent effect on IL-6 production, whereas Dexa inhibited basal and IL-1beta and TNFalpha induced IL-6 expression dose dependently. In conclusion, IL-1beta, TNFalpha, TGFbeta 1 and 2 and ET-1 may participate in the regulation of bone resorption by stimulating IL-6 expression in HOC. Dexa inhibits the constitutive and cytokine stimulated IL-6 expression, whereas there is no in vitro evidence that sex steroids exert a major inhibitory effect on the osteoblastic secretion of IL-6 as demonstrated in a primary human bone cell model.
    Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 02/1998; 106(4):324-33. DOI:10.1055/s-0029-1211993 · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • C Kasperk · A Helmboldt · I Börcsök · S Heuthe · O Cloos · F Niethard · R Ziegler
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    ABSTRACT: There are obvious sexual differences in adult skeletal morphology which for the most part are related to differences in size. Higher androgen serum levels in males exert potent osteoanabolic effects and therefore may contribute to this sexual dimorphism of the skeleton. The presence of androgen receptors (AR) in bone cells is a prerequisite for a direct osteoanabolic action of androgens. To investigate the possibility that, in addition to gender-related differences in androgen serum levels, there are also gender-related differences in the osteoblastic expression pattern of the androgen receptor, we examined AR mRNA expression, androgen binding sites, and mitogenic responses to the androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in human osteoblastic cell (HOC) populations. HOCs were isolated from bone biopsy specimens derived from different skeletal sites of healthy adult males and females (2-69 years old). We found that male and female HOCs of all examined ages express similar AR mRNA levels and similar numbers of androgen binding sites. Using whole-cell-binding assays, we observed 3129-8417 androgen binding sites per femoral HOC with apparent KDs of 1.45-2.83 nM depending on the age of the investigated HOC population. Mandibular and cortical HOC of both sexes expressed higher AR mRNA levels, significantly more androgen binding sites per cell, and exhibited significantly greater mitogenic responses to DHT than iliac crest-derived and trabecular HOC of the same skeletal system and the same skeletal-site, respectively. In early adulthood, HOCs of both sexes appear to express somewhat higher AR mRNA levels and to possess more androgen binding sites than prepubertal and senescent HOC. Because sex hormone serum levels rise in puberty, we investigated the regulation of the AR mRNA expression by various steroids. We found that dexamethasone (dexa) and in some experiments also 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3) increased AR mRNA levels and androgen binding in HOC cultures. A pretreatment with dexa, E2, and D3 significantly increased the mitogenic response of HOCs to DHT. We conclude that (1) higher androgen serum levels in males together with a higher AR expression at certain skeletal sites may contribute to the development of sex-related differences in skeletal morphology, (2) glucocorticoids induce AR gene expression in HOC cultures, and (3) glucocorticoids, E2, and D3 enhance the mitogenic action of DHT.
    Calcified Tissue International 01/1998; 61(6):464-73. DOI:10.1007/s002239900369 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial cell products may affect bone cell function, since trabecular and cortical bone are in close proximity to vascular endothelial cells. Incubation of cultured human osteoblastic cells with the endothelial cell polypeptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) resulted in a time- and dose-dependent stimulation of cell proliferation. Furthermore, markers of differentiated osteoblastic function, i.e., alkaline phosphatase and type-I collagen, were dose-dependently increased in response to ET-1. The effects of ET-1 on cell growth and function reached a maximum at higher ET-1 concentrations, and osteoblastic cells bound ET-1 specifically with a KD of 35 pM, corresponding to the biologic effects of ET-1 on bone cells. Under baseline conditions osteoblastic cells expressed 16,800 binding sites per cell. The effect of ET-1 was dependent on its binding to the endothelin-1 receptor A (ETRA), since an inhibitor of ET-1 binding blocked the biologic effects of ET-1. Northern blot analyses revealed that cultured human osteoblastic cells possess the transcript for the ETRA. Expression of ETRA mRNA was under control of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25 (OH)2D3]. Incubation of osteoblastic cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 increased ETRA mRNA levels, corresponding to an increased effect of ET-1 on osteoblastic proliferation and function. Thus, a concerted action of the endothelial cell polypeptide ET-1 and 1,25(OH)2D3 may mediate an osteoanabolic effect of the vascular and endocrine vitamin D system.
    Calcified Tissue International 05/1997; 60(4):368-74. DOI:10.1007/s002239900245 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • C H Kasperk · K Faehling · I Börcsök · R Ziegler
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we showed that androgens stimulate murine and human osteoblast-like cell proliferation and differentiation by mechanisms involving increased responses to mitogenic growth factors (GF) and increased GF production. To explain this dual action of androgens on primary osteoblastic cell populations we advanced the hypothesis that androgens exert differential effects on osteoblastic subpopulations. We subcloned a human osteosarcoma cell line (SaOS2) into subpopulations expressing high (HAS) and low (LAS) levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The obtained subclones differed significantly in their ALP production and expressed a high and low ALP phenotype, respectively, for the entire experimental period. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) increased specific ALP activity and type-I procollagen peptide secretion in both HAS and LAS. DHT pretreatment enhanced the mitogenic action of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulinlike growth factor 2 (IGF2) only in HAS. The enhanced mitogenic effect of IGF2 in HAS after DHT pretreatment was associated with increased IGF2-receptor mRNA levels. Therefore, we conclude that androgens exert their osteoanabolic action (1) by stimulating differentiated functions of osteoblastic cells with a high and a low ALP phenotype, and (2) via increased growth factor receptor expression and thereby enhancing mitogenic growth factor responses only in HAS.
    Calcified Tissue International 06/1996; 58(5):376-82. DOI:10.1007/s002239900061 · 2.75 Impact Factor