[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection of poultry with diverse lineages of H5N2 avian influenza viruses has been documented for over three decades in different parts of the world, with limited outbreaks caused by this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. In the present study, three avian H5N2 influenza viruses, A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/1209/2013, A/chicken/Chiping/0321/2014, and A/chicken/Laiwu/0313/2014, were isolated from chickens with clinical symptoms of avian influenza. Complete genomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all three isolates are novel recombinant viruses with hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix (M) genes derived from H5N1, and remaining genes derived from H9N2-like viruses. The HA cleavage motif in all three strains (PQIEGRRRKR/GL) is characteristic of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain. These results indicate the occurrence of H5N2 recombination and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of the H5N2 subtype virus and reformulation of vaccine strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [OBJECTIVE] Although much is done in the coding genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) , limited papers can be found with non-coding sequences. In this paper, the evolution tendency of non-coding sequences was studied. [METHODS] NDV strain LC12 isolated from duck with egg drop syndrome in 2012, and others 35 strains genome cDNA of different NDV genotype were sought and obtained from GenBank. Analytical approaches including nucleotide homology, nucleotide alignment and phylogenetic tree were associated with the leading sequences, trailer sequences, intergenic sequences (IGS), and coding gene between 5 'and 3' UTR nucleotide, respectively. [RESULTS] The location and the length of the non-coding sequences highly conserve, and the variation trend of non-coding sequences is synchronous with the entire genomes and coding genes. [ CONCLUSION] The molecular variation of the coding gene was indistinguishable with the non-coding gene in view of the NDV genome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates were obtained from 997 fecal and tissue samples were collected in 2011 from seafowl that included seagull, sea duck, and swan from the coastal areas of Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Shandong in China. These isolates (SD1, SD2, GD1, and JS1) were characterized for their pathogenicity according to their mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index and intravenous pathogenicity index. Full-length fusion protein genes containing the cleavage site were sequenced, and amino-acid sequences around the cleavage site were deduced. One isolate (SD2) was virulent to poultry as indicated by its mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and fusion gene cleavage site sequence, which was specific for virulent NDV ((112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117)). The phylogenic analysis indicated that three of the isolates (SD1, GD1, and JS1) belonged to genotype II and the virulent isolate (SD2) belonged to genotype VIId. These findings suggest that some seafowl NDVs in the coastal areas of China have different virulences and molecular characterizations, and these NDVs have some similarity with vaccine- or poultry-adapted isolates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) has been considered to only infect avian species. However, one paramyxovirus named as Xiny10 was isolated from swine. The differences of Xiny10, another previous swine NDV (JL01) and vaccine strain La Sota were compared on the basis of sequences of the whole-lengthen Fusion (F) gene and biological characteristics.
Through serologic tests and sequence alignment, Xiny10 was proved as NDV. It has great differences with JL01 in virulence, biological characteristics, genotype and amino acid homology of F gene. The sequence alignment showed Xiny10 and La Sota both belonged to genotype II. It shared 97.3% to 98.7% identities with genotype II NDVs, which was higher than these strains from the other genotypes.
These above data suggested that the swine virus was NDV and it might be generated from La Sota.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From April 2010 to January 2011, a severe new viral disease had devastated most duck-farming regions in China. This disease affected not only laying ducks but also meat ducks, causing huge economic losses for the poultry industry. The objective of this study is to develop a one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of the new virus related to Tembusu-related Flavivirus.
The RT-LAMP assay is very simple and rapid, and the amplification can be completed within 50 min under isothermal conditions at 63°C by a set of 6 primers targeting the E gene based on the sequences analysis of the newly isolated viruses and other closely related Flavivirus.The monitoring of gene amplification can also be visualized by using SYBR green I fluorescent dye. In addition, the RT-LAMP assay for newly isolated Tembusu-related Flavivirus showed higher sensitivity with an RNA detection-limit of 2 copies/μL compared with 190 copies/μL of the conventional RT-PCR method. The specificity was identified without cross reaction to other common avian pathogens. By screening a panel of clinical samples this method was more feasible in clinical settings and there was higher positive coincidence rate than conventional RT-PCR and virus isolation.
The RT-LAMP assay for newly isolated Tembusu-related Flavivirus is a valuable tool for the rapid and real-time detection not only in well-equipped laboratories but also in general conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chicken interferon-alpha (ChIFN-α) has been demonstrated to be an important cytokine in antiviral immunity. However, the preventive or therapeutic effect of ChIFN-α as an oral antiviral agent on avian influenza virus (AIV) infection has not been fully clarified in chickens systemically. In the present study, we investigated the anti-H9N2 AIV effect of ChIFN-α on a cohort of 7- and 33-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens by oral administration. Results showed that both the ChIFN-α preventive and therapeutic groups exhibited significantly reduced viral load in trachea when compared with the virus-challenged control group. The therapeutic effect was better than the preventive effect on 7-day-old SPF chickens, which is opposite to 33-day-old SPF chickens. We speculated that T-dependent lymphocyte system of 33-day-old SPF chickens might be easier to be stimulated by ChIFN-α than that of 7-day-old SPF chickens. In addition, there was no side effect on the body weight of chickens treated with ChIFN-α. We also found that IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) (2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase and Mx1) were upregulated in groups treated by ChIFN-α and/or virus, indicating that these 2 ISGs not only participated in anti-AIV response in vivo but also could be induced by oral administration of ChIFN-α. The present study suggested that ChIFN-α could be used as a potential preventive and therapeutic antiviral agent against H9N2 AIV infection by oral administration.
Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 02/2011; 31(7):533-8. DOI:10.1089/jir.2010.0123 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirteen prevailed Newcastle-disease viruses (NDV) isolated in China during 2001-2004 were purified by chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) plaque assay and characterized pathotypically and genotypically. The biological tests showed that these viruses were highly virulent. Sequence analysis based on the variable region (nucleotide 47-420) of the F gene indicated that of the 13 NDV isolates 2 belonged to genotype II, 2 to genotype IX and 9 to genotype VII. Isolates with genotype VII shared 94.6%-99.3% nucleotide (nt) homology with the F gene, whereas for genotype VII and La Sota was only 82.7%-84.1%. In addition, these NDV isolates all shared 95.2%-100% nt homology with the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene, whereas only 79.1%-84.3% compared these viruses with La Sota. The cross neutralization assays were done using positive serums in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryos respectively. Correlation of the neutralization index in chicken embryo with the homologies of F and HN gene of different NDV isolates were analyzed by SPSS8.0 software. The result showed that the neutralization index was closely correlated with nt sequence (P < 0.01, r = 0.35) or deduced amino acid sequence (P < 0.01, r = 0.34) of the HN gene, whereas weekly correlated (P < 0.05, r = 0.20 or 0.19) with the F gene, and non-correlated with 374 nt segment. This implied that the genetic mutations of HN resulted in antigenic variations of these viruses and the search for new vaccines would be necessary.