H El-Kholy

Auburn University, AUO, Alabama, United States

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Publications (3)5.59 Total impact

  • H El-Kholy · B Kemppainen · W Ravis · F Hoerr
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    ABSTRACT: The pharmacokinetics of levamisole was studied in 20 broiler breeder chickens (chickens that give eggs to breed broilers). A single dose of levamisole (40 mg/kg) was administered orally or intravenously to chickens before the onset of egg production, prelay (age = 22 weeks), and repeated at the peak of egg production (age = 32 weeks). A high-pressure liquid chromatographic with ultraviolet detection method (HPLC-UV) was used for quantification of levamisole in plasma. Using compartmental analysis, levamisole followed a three-compartmental open model with mean values of alpha = 0.1224 and 0.4968, beta = 0.01663 and 0.01813, gamma = 0.002 and 0.002/min at the prelay and at the peak of egg production periods, respectively. The mean values for volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)), determined by compartmental analysis, were significantly different for prelay and peak of egg production (8.358 and 13.581 mL/kg), respectively.
    Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 03/2006; 29(1):49-53. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2885.2006.00710.x · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    H El-Kholy · B W Kemppainen
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    ABSTRACT: Levamisole is currently being used to treat capillaria infection in chickens even though there is no published withdrawal information available for levamisole in chickens. Tissue residue withdrawal of levamisole in chickens was studied in 32 healthy broiler breeder chickens at the age of 32 wk (peak of egg production). Levamisole residues in chicken tissues, eggs, and plasma were determined by HPLC with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 225 nm. The highest level of residue and longest withdrawal after oral administration of 40 mg/kg levamisole to chickens was in the liver. On d 3 the level of levamisole were undetectable in the plasma. On d 9, levamisole residue in eggs was 0.096 microg/g and on d 18 it was 0.06 microg/g or less in all the analyzed chicken tissues. Those levels were lower than the recommended maximum residue limit (MRL). The withdrawal time for levamisole in chickens was longer than for other species tested, which is due in part to a larger dose of levamisole being recommended for chickens. In conclusion from this research, 9 d are needed for levamisole in eggs to be less than the MRL, and 18 d of withdrawal are needed before medicated birds are slaughtered if their tissues are to be safe for human consumption.
    Poultry Science 02/2005; 84(1):9-13. DOI:10.1093/ps/84.1.9 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Howaida El-Kholy · Barbara W Kemppainen
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    ABSTRACT: The development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic and UV detection method was accomplished for quantitative determination of levamisole in chicken tissues, eggs and plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Luna 5 microm C(18) column using a mobile phase of 0.2% acetic acid in water:methanol (50:50 (v/v)) and Pic B-7 low UV reagent and the pH was adjusted to 7.31 with ammonium hydroxide and UV wavelength was 225 nm. Limits of quantification were 0.025 microg/g for all tissues and 0.003 microg/ml for plasma. Limit of detection was 0.001 microg/g for tissues and plasma.
    Journal of Chromatography B 12/2003; 796(2):371-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2003.08.025 · 2.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

21 Citations
5.59 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2005
    • Auburn University
      • Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology
      AUO, Alabama, United States