[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive respiratory function impairment and respiratory muscle dysfunction. We hypothesized that the mass and fat infiltration of respiratory muscles correlates with COPD severity and emphysema extent.
Ninety-eight male patients with COPD underwent chest computed tomography (CT) and spirometry. The mass and fat infiltrations of intercostal and latissimus muscles were quantified as the cross-sectional area (CSA) and attenuation of these muscles using CT histogram analysis. Intercostal index and latissimus index were defined as intercostal CSAs and latissimus CSAs divided by body mass index. The emphysema extent was measured as the ratio of the emphysematous lung volume to the total lung volume using a density-mask technique. Pearson correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between these parameters. Multiple regression analysis was performed using forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) as the dependent parameter and the clinical and CT data as the independent parameters.
FEV1 was significantly correlated with intercostal index (r = 0.57), latissimus index (r = 0.34), intercostal attenuation (r = 0.62), and latissimus attenuation (r = 0.38). Emphysema extent was significantly correlated with intercostal index (r = -0.36) and intercostal attenuation (r = -0.50). Multiple regression analysis showed that FEV1 was predicted by intercostal attenuation (B = 0.40), intercostal CSA (B = 0.23), emphysema extent (B = -0.23), and age (B = -0.21, R(2) = 0.64, P < .001).
A decrease in intercostal mass and an increase in intercostal fat are associated with worsening of COPD severity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transthoracic biopsy of peripheral lung lesions under ultrasonography (US) guidance is a useful diagnostic technique. However, factors affecting diagnostic yield of US-guided transthoracic biopsy of peripheral lung lesions are not well established.
To determine the factors that influence diagnostic yield of US-guided transthoracic biopsy in peripheral lung lesions.
A total of 100 consecutive patients underwent US-guided percutaneous cutting biopsy of peripheral lung lesions from October 2007 to March 2009. After seven unconfirmed cases were excluded, 97 procedures in 93 consecutive patients were included in this study. The accuracy of the lung biopsies was assessed by comparing the biopsy results with the final diagnoses. We divided the cases into a correct group (true-positive and true-negative) and an incorrect group (false-positive, false-negative, and non-diagnostic results) and analyzed the differences in the lesions, procedures, and patient variables between the two groups.
According to the final diagnoses, 56 cases (57.7%) were malignant and 41 cases (42.3%) were benign. An overall diagnostic accuracy of 91.8% was obtained. The median size of the lesions was 46.0 mm (interquartile range [IQR], 30.0-69.5 mm), and the median lesion-pleura contact arc length (LPCAL) was 31.0 mm (IQR, 18.0-51.0 mm). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only LPCAL (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04-1.30) was a significant predictor of a correct diagnosis. When we divided the lesions into those with LPCAL values >30 mm and LPCAL values ≤30 mm, the sensitivity (96.6% vs. 74.1%; P = 0.02) and the accuracy (98% vs. 85.4%; P = 0.03) were significantly higher in the group with larger LPCAL.
In US-guided transthoracic biopsy of peripheral lung lesions, the LPCAL of the lesions is an important factor for a correct diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis is a parasitic infection caused by lung flukes including Paragonimus westermani. Paragonimiasis usually occurs from ingestion of raw or improperly cooked freshwater crabs or crayfish. Pleural or lung parenchymal lesions are commonly found on CT or chest radiographs, and radiologic manifestations of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis vary with the stage of the disease. Early findings include pneumothorax or hydrothorax, focal air-space consolidation, and linear opacities. Later findings include thin-walled cysts, mass-like consolidation, nodules, or bronchiectasis. Pulmonary paragonimiasis often can be mistaken for pulmonary tuberculosis in tuberculosis-endemic areas or lung cancer when it presents as a solitary pulmonary nodule. Intraperitoneal or ectopic lesions such as those in the retroperitoneum can form during migration of a juvenile worm from the small intestine to the lungs. Although the symptoms and signs of pulmonary paragonimiasis are nonspecific, an early diagnosis can be made if radiologists understand the pathogenesis and typical imaging findings of the disease. The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the various imaging findings of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis and to review articles to help radiologists make a proper diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to evaluate the plaque characteristics of coronary arteries related to significant stenosis with coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and to discuss the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA in patients with high calcium scores. After institutional review board approval, 110 patients (63 men; mean age: 67.1 ± 7.9 years) with Agatston scores >400 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients underwent Agatston calcium scoring and 64-slice CCTA, in addition to invasive coronary angiography (CAG). The composition (calcified, mixed, and non-calcified) and configuration (concentric, eccentric) of coronary artery plaques were analyzed on a per-segment basis by CCTA. We analyzed the differences in plaque composition and configuration between significant (≥ 50%) and non-significant (<50%) stenosis. Additionally, the diagnostic accuracy of stenosis according to plaque composition was evaluated by CCTA, using CAG as a reference method. Significant differences in plaque composition and configurations were observed between the two groups. In cases of significant stenosis, the proportions of concentric, mixed, and non-calcified plaques were significantly higher than those of eccentric and calcified plaques (P < 0.001). The sensitivity and positive predictive value of mixed (97.4, 87.6%) and non-calcified plaques (97.8, 95.7%) were significantly higher than those of calcified plaques (87.6, 67.2%). Although CCTA has limited value due to low diagnostic accuracy of calcified plaques, knowledge about the high frequencies of mixed and non-calcified plaques in significant stenosis help to make an accurate assessment of CAD with CCTA in patients with high calcium scores.
The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 11/2011; 27 Suppl 1(S1):43-51. DOI:10.1007/s10554-011-9970-7 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac injury is a common but occasionally serious complication of blunt chest trauma. A ventricular septal rupture (VSR) is a rare complication and is variable in its presentation, temporal course and severity. Here, we report a rare case of 75-year-old man who developed delayed VSR following blunt chest trauma.
Korean Circulation Journal 10/2011; 41(10):625-8. DOI:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.10.625
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical features, treatments, stages, and survival in older adults with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
A consecutive case study with retrospective medical record review.
University hospital (tertiary referral center) in Korea.
Two hundred sixty-two participants with HCC diagnosed between May 1, 2003, and December 31, 2006.
Clinical characteristics, treatments, four staging systems for HCC, and survival in older (≥65, n=113) and younger (<65, n=149) people with HCC.
The older HCC group were less likely to have hepatitis B virus infection and diffuse tumors and had more comorbidities, poorer performance status, smaller tumor area, and multinodular disease. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to Child-Pugh-Turcotte score, Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, Child class, alpha-fetoprotein levels, and tumor stage at diagnosis. Approximately 88% of subjects were treated regardless of age, but resection was performed less frequently in the older participants. Older participants with HCC had overall survival and liver-related mortality similar to those of the younger participants, although they had poorer performance, greater comorbidity, and less likelihood of receiving surgery than the younger patients.
This study supports the effectiveness and safety of nonsurgical treatment for older adults with HCC. Further study is needed to elucidate the reasons for similar prognoses in the older adults in spite of the greater burdens of comorbidities and poorer performance status.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 02/2011; 59(2):241-50. DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03273.x · 4.22 Impact Factor