Hillary L Copp

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (30)93.73 Total impact

  • Sisir Botta, Hillary L. Copp
    The Journal of Urology 06/2014; 192(3). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2014.06.062 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Prior single center studies showed that antibiotic resistance patterns differ between outpatients and inpatients. We compared antibiotic resistance patterns for urinary tract infection between outpatients and inpatients on a national level. Materials and Methods We examined outpatient and inpatient urinary isolates from children younger than 18 years using The Surveillance Network (Eurofins Scientific, Luxembourg, Luxembourg), a database of antibiotic susceptibility results, as well as patient demographic data from 195 American hospitals. We determined the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of the 6 most common uropathogens, including Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus. We compared differences in uropathogen prevalence and resistance patterns for outpatient and inpatient isolates using chi-square analysis. Results We identified 25,418 outpatient (86% female) and 5,560 inpatient (63% female) urinary isolates. Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen overall but its prevalence varied by gender and visit setting, that is 79% of uropathogens overall for outpatient isolates, including 83% of females and 50% of males, compared to 54% for overall inpatient isolates, including 64% of females and 37% of males (p <0.001). Uropathogen resistance to many antibiotics was lower in the outpatient vs inpatient setting, including trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 24% vs 30% and cephalothin 16% vs 22% for E. coli (each p <0.001), cephalothin 7% vs 14% for Klebsiella (p = 0.03), ceftriaxone 12% vs 24% and ceftazidime 15% vs 33% for Enterobacter (each p <0.001), and ampicillin 3% vs 13% and ciprofloxacin 5% vs 12% for Enterococcus (each p <0.001). Conclusions Uropathogen resistance rates of several antibiotics are higher for urinary specimens obtained from inpatients vs outpatients. Separate outpatient vs inpatient based antibiograms can aid in empirical prescribing for pediatric urinary tract infections.
    The Journal of urology 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2013.10.064 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2014; 191(4):e443. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2014.02.1377 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Rachel S Edlin, Hillary L Copp
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    ABSTRACT: Antibiotics are a mainstay in the treatment of bacterial infections, though their use is a primary risk factor for the development of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in pediatric urology as demonstrated by increased uropathogen resistance. Lack of urine testing, nonselective use of prophylaxis, and poor empiric prescribing practices exacerbate this problem. This article reviews antibiotic utilization in pediatric urology with emphasis on modifiable practice patterns to potentially help mitigate the growing rates of antibiotic resistance. This includes urine testing to only treat when indicated and tailor broad-spectrum therapy as able; selective application of antibiotic prophylaxis to patients with high-grade vesicoureteral reflux and hydronephrosis with counseling regarding the importance of compliance; and using local antiobiograms, particularly pediatric-specific antiobiograms, with inpatient versus outpatient data.
    Therapeutic Advances in Urology 04/2014; 6(2):54-61. DOI:10.1177/1756287213511508
  • Bruce J. Schlomer, Hillary L. Copp
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Augmentation cystoplasty (AC) is a major surgery that can be associated with long-term morbidity. This study aimed to describe the cumulative incidence of outcomes and urologic procedures in a large cohort of children who underwent AC, identify significant sources of morbidity, and to evaluate baseline factors associated with outcomes of interest. Methods Children ≤18 years who underwent AC in the Pediatric Health Information System from 1999 to 2010 were included. All follow-up encounters up to June 2012 were included. Cumulative incidences for 15 outcomes and urologic procedures were calculated using non-informative censoring. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine effect of censoring assumptions and including hospitals without complete datasets. As an exploratory analysis, baseline patient factors were evaluated for associations with outcomes and urologic procedures of interest using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for clustering by hospital. Results 2831 AC patients were identified. Based on cumulative incidence calculations and sensitivity analyses; the cumulative incidence ranges of outcomes and procedures at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years were calculated. Examples of 10-year cumulative incidence ranges are given for the following outcomes and procedures: bladder rupture (2.9–6.4%), small bowel obstruction (5.2–10.3%), bladder stones (13.3–36.0%), pyelonephritis (16.1–37.1%), cystolithopaxy (13.3–35.1%), and reaugmentation (5.2–13.4%). The development of chronic kidney disease was strongly associated with a diagnosis of lower urinary tract obstruction (HR 13.7; 95% CI 9.4–19.9). Bladder neck surgery and stoma creation at time of AC were associated with an increased hazard of bladder rupture (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1–3.3) and bladder stones (HR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.8) respectively. Conclusions Outcomes of interest and urologic procedures after AC are common. Results from this large cohort can be used to counsel patients and families about expectations after AC. Pyelonephritis, chronic kidney disease, further reconstructive surgery, and calculus disease appear to cause significant morbidity. Collaborative efforts are needed to further reduce morbidity in this patient population.
    Journal of pediatric urology 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpurol.2014.03.007 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Hypospadias is usually treated in childhood. Therefore, the natural history of untreated mild hypospadias is unknown. We hypothesized that men with untreated hypospadias, especially mild, do not have adverse outcomes. Materials Facebook was used to advertise an electronic survey to men older than 18 years. Men with untreated hypospadias identified themselves and indicated the severity of hypospadias with a series of questions. Outcomes included: Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM), penile curvature and difficulty with intercourse, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Penile Perception Score (PPS), psychosexual milestones, paternity, infertility, sitting to urinate, and the CDC HRQOL-4 module. Results 736 men completed self-anatomy questions and 52 (7.1%) self-identified with untreated hypospadias. Untreated hypospadias participants reported worse SHIM (p<0.001) and IPSS scores (p=0.05), more ventral penile curvature (p=0.003) and resulting difficulty with intercourse (p<0.001), worse satisfaction with meatus (p=0.011) and penile curvature (p=0.048), and more sitting to urinate (p=0.07). When stratified by mild and severe hypospadias, severe hypospadias was associated with more adverse outcomes than mild hypospadias. Conclusion Men with untreated hypospadias reported worse outcomes compared with non-hypospadiac men. Mild untreated hypospadias had fewer adverse outcomes than severe hypospadias. Research is needed to determine if treatment of childhood hypospadias improves outcomes in adults, especially for mild hypospadias.
    Journal of pediatric urology 02/2014; 10(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpurol.2014.01.024 · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • Bruce J Schlomer, Hillary L Copp
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary data analysis is the use of data collected by someone other than the investigator for research. In the last several years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of these studies being published in urologic journals and presented at urologic meetings, especially of secondary data analysis of large administrative datasets. Along with this expansion, skepticism for secondary data analysis studies has increased for many urologists. In this narrative review we discuss the types of large datasets that are commonly used for secondary data analysis in urology and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of secondary data analysis. A literature search was performed to identify urologic secondary data analysis studies published since 2008 using commonly used large datasets and examples of high quality studies published in high impact journals are given. We outline an approach for performing a successful hypothesis or goal driven secondary data analysis study and highlight common errors to avoid. Over 350 secondary data analysis studies using large datasets have been published on urologic topics since 2008 with likely many more studies presented at meetings but never published. Non-hypothesis or goal driven studies have likely constituted some of these studies and have probably contributed to increased skepticism of this type of research. However, many high quality hypothesis driven studies addressing research questions that would have been difficult to study with other methods have been performed in the last few years. Secondary data analysis is a very powerful tool that can address questions which could not be adequately studied by another method. Knowledge of limitations of secondary data analysis and of the datasets used is critical for a successful study. There are also important errors to avoid when planning and performing a secondary data analysis study. Investigators and the urologic community need to strive to use secondary data analysis of large datasets appropriately to produce high quality studies that hopefully lead to improved patient outcomes.
    The Journal of urology 10/2013; 191(3). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2013.09.091 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To better understand parental beliefs regarding the etiology and treatment of nocturnal enuresis (NE). METHODS: A self-administered survey queried parental NE beliefs including perceived etiologies and home behavioral treatments. We assessed for associations between demographic characteristics and propensity to seek medical care for NE. RESULTS: Of 216 respondents, 78% were female. The most common causes for NE reported were: deep sleeper (56%), unknown (39%), and laziness (26%). Popular home behavioral therapies included: void prior to sleep (77%) and limiting fluid intake at night (71%). Few reported they would use a bedwetting alarm (6%). Fifty-five percent reported they would seek medical care for NE and 28% reported awareness of effective treatments. On multivariable analysis, females (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.04-5.0) and those with graduate level education (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.5-15.7) were more likely to seek medical care for their child with NE. CONCLUSIONS: General parental knowledge of the causes and effective treatments for NE is lacking. Only 55% reported they would seek medical care for their child with NE and only 28% reported awareness of effective treatments. Counseling should focus on dispelling common misconceptions about causes and treatments of NE and focus on proven effective treatments.
    Journal of pediatric urology 04/2013; 9(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.02.013 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to characterize current national patterns of antibiotic resistance in outpatient pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined outpatient urinary isolates from children <18 years in 2009 using The Surveillance Network® (TSN®), a database with antibiotic susceptibility results and patient demographic data from 195 US hospitals. We determined the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns for the six most common uropathogens: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus. We compared differences in uropathogen prevalence between males and females with chi-square analysis. RESULTS: We identified 25,418 outpatient urinary isolates. Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen overall, but the prevalence of Escherichia coli was higher among females (83%) than males (50%) (p<0.001). Other common species among males were Enterococcus (17%), Proteus mirabilis (11%), and Klebsiella (10%); however, these uropathogens each accounted for ≤5% of female isolates (p<0.001). Resistance among Escherichia coli was highest for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) (24%), but lower for nitrofurantoin (<1%) and cephalothin (15%). Compared with 2002 TSN® data, Escherichia coli resistance rates rose for TMP/SMX (males: 23% versus 31% and females: 20% versus 23%) and ciprofloxacin (males: 1% versus 10% and females: 0.6% versus 4%). CONCLUSION: Escherichia coli remains the most common pediatric uropathogen. Although widely used, due to high resistance rates, TMP/SMX is a poor empiric choice for pediatric UTIs in many areas. First-generation cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin are appropriate narrow-spectrum alternatives given their low resistance rates. Local antibiograms should be used to assist with empiric UTI treatment.
    The Journal of urology 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2013.01.069 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether orchiopexies are occurring later than recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics 1996 guidelines (around age 1). Adherence to guidelines is poorly studied. The main cohort consisted of 4103 boys insured from birth (Innovus i3, insurance claims database). The complementary cohort consisted of 17 010 insured and noninsured boys (Pediatric Health Information System, PHIS). The inclusion criteria was age ≤5 years at time of International Classification of Disease, 9th revision-defined cryptorchidism diagnosis. The primary outcome was timely surgery (orchiopexy by age 18 months). In Innovus, 87% of boys who underwent an orchiopexy had a timely orchiopexy. Of those who did not undergo surgery (n = 2738), 90% had at least 1 subsequent well-care visit. Those who underwent timely surgery were referred to a surgeon at a younger age compared with those who underwent late surgery (4.1 vs 16.1 months, P < .00005). Predictors of timely surgery were number of well-care visits (odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.3-1.7), continuity of primary care (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3-2.7), and use of laparoscopy (odds ratio 4.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4-14.9). Family/internal medicine as referring provider was predictive of delayed surgery (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.8). In the Pediatric Health Information System, 61% of those with private insurance had timely surgery compared with 54% of those without private insurance (P < .0001). We found an unexpectedly high adherence to guidelines in our continuously insured since birth Innovus population. Primary care continuity and well-care visits were associated with timely surgery. Further studies can confirm these findings in nonprivately insured patients with the ultimate goal of instituting quality improvement initiatives.
    Urology 11/2012; 80(5):1121-6. DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2012.08.008 · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2012; 187(4):e253-e254. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2012.02.702 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptorchidism (undescended testis) is the most common genitourinary anomaly in male infants. We reviewed the available literature on the diagnostic performance of ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in localizing undescended testes. Ultrasound is the most heavily used imaging modality to evaluate undescended testes. Ultrasound has variable ability to detect palpable testes and has an estimated sensitivity and specificity of 45% and 78%, respectively, to accurately localize nonpalpable testes. Given the poor ability to localize nonpalpable testes, ultrasound has no role in the routine evaluation of boys with cryptorchidism. Magnetic resonance imaging has greater sensitivity and specificity but is expensive, not universally available, and often requires sedation for effective studies of pediatric patients. Diagnostic laparoscopy has nearly 100% sensitivity and specificity for localizing nonpalpable testes and allows for concurrent surgical correction. Although diagnostic imaging does not have a role in the routine evaluation of boys with cryptorchidism, there are clinical scenarios in which imaging is necessary. Children with ambiguous genitalia or hypospadias and undescended testes should have ultrasound evaluation to detect the presence of müllerian structures.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 12/2011; 46(12):2406-13. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2011.08.008 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined trends in pediatric hospitalization for pyelonephritis from 1985 to 2006 and identified factors associated with admission. We performed a population based analysis of hospital discharges using the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database to evaluate trends in California regarding pediatric hospitalizations for pyelonephritis from 1985 to 2006. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with admission for pyelonephritis. A total of 46,300 children were hospitalized for pyelonephritis in California from 1985 to 2006. The overall rate of hospitalization for pyelonephritis increased by greater than 80%, from 17 per 100,000 children in the California population in 1985 to 31 per 100,000 in 2005. This change was primarily due to the nearly ninefold increase in pyelonephritis hospitalizations observed in children younger than 1 year, from 28 per 100,000 in 1985 to 238 per 100,000 in 2005. Among children younger than 1 year males without private insurance and of nonwhite race had increased odds of hospitalization, while females with private insurance and of Asian race had increased odds of hospitalization, compared with nonprivate insurance and white race, respectively. A significant increase in hospital admissions for pyelonephritis, primarily in children younger than 1 year, occurred in California between 1985 and 2006. Further studies are needed to establish the cause of this striking increase and to determine why certain pediatric populations are at increased risk for hospitalization.
    The Journal of urology 09/2011; 186(3):1028-34. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2011.04.101 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Jenny H Yiee, Hillary L Copp
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    ABSTRACT: Research using existing data collected for other purposes, also known as secondary data analysis, is becoming increasingly popular in pediatric urology, yet has significant issues with interpretation. This article reviews some of the current data being presented in a critical manner and provides insight into appropriate interpretation. There are numerous datasets available to pediatric urologists. These datasets allow investigators access to a large number of patients, which can lead to generalizable conclusions on a national level and can be performed in a time-efficient manner. However, investigators must be cautious when performing and interpreting such studies given the need for careful study design when using secondary data analysis. One must be sure that the dataset is well collected and valid, that it is an appropriate dataset with appropriate measures for the research question at hand, that the study population is adequately sorted from the overall dataset, and that appropriate statistical methods have been applied to minimize confounding and bias. Secondary data analysis can help answer questions that are difficult to address due to feasibility of patient recruitment, time, and cost. The results can be informative and applicable. With careful attention to study design and methods, dataset and research question compatibility, and statistical issues, one can construct a study that is valid, robust, and generalizable.
    Current opinion in urology 07/2011; 21(4):309-13. DOI:10.1097/MOU.0b013e3283468d2a · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    Jenny H Yiee, Gregory E Tasian, Hillary L Copp
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the practice patterns of general pediatricians in the management of prenatally detected hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormality found on prenatal ultrasonography. The utility of prophylactic antibiotics in the postnatal management of this condition is controversial. No study has assessed the practice patterns of general pediatricians in the management of prenatally detected hydronephrosis. An 18-question survey was sent to a random cross-section national sample of pediatricians from the American Medical Association Masterfile. The participants answered questions regarding practice location and type, practice experience, frequency of cases seen, familiarity with the published data, use of antibiotics, workup of hydronephrosis, and specialist referral. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with prescribing antibiotics. Of the 461 pediatricians, 244 (53%) responded. Of the respondents, 56% routinely prescribed antibiotics for prenatally detected hydronephrosis, and 57% performed the postnatal workup themselves. Of these, 98% routinely ordered ultrasound scans and ∼40% routinely ordered voiding cystourethrograms. Of the respondents, 94% always had specialists readily available; however, only 41% always referred to a specialist. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, those who believe prophylactic antibiotics to be beneficial were significantly more likely to prescribe antibiotics than those who had not read the published data (odds ratio 6.1, 95% confidence interval 2-15). Those without specialist consultation readily available had an increased odds of starting prophylactic antibiotics compared with those who had consultation available (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 1.3-39). Most pediatricians initiate postnatal management of prenatally detected hydronephrosis; therefore, pediatricians truly are the gatekeepers for children with this condition. Knowledge of the practice patterns is crucial for the dissemination of evidence-based information to the appropriate providers and will enable us to learn more about the utility of antibiotic prophylaxis in future studies.
    Urology 06/2011; 78(4):895-901. DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2011.04.027 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    Hillary L Copp, Daniel J Shapiro, Adam L Hersh
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to investigate patterns of ambulatory antibiotic use and to identify factors associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for pediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs). We examined antibiotics prescribed for UTIs for children aged younger than 18 years from 1998 to 2007 using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Amoxicillin-clavulanate, quinolones, macrolides, and second- and third-generation cephalosporins were classified as broad-spectrum antibiotics. We evaluated trends in broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing patterns and performed multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic use. Antibiotics were prescribed for 70% of pediatric UTI visits. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic (49% of visits). Broad-spectrum antibiotics were prescribed one third of the time. There was no increase in overall use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (P = .67); however, third-generation cephalosporin use doubled from 12% to 25% (P = .02). Children younger than 2 years old (odds ratio: 6.4 [95% confidence interval: 2.2-18.7, compared with children 13-17 years old]), females (odds ratio: 3.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.6-8.5]), and temperature ≥ 100.4°F (odds ratio: 2.9 [95% confidence interval: 1.0-8.6]) were independent predictors of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing. Race, physician specialty, region, and insurance status were not associated with antibiotic selection. Ambulatory care physicians commonly prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics for the treatment of pediatric UTIs, especially for febrile infants in whom complicated infections are more likely. The doubling in use of third-generation cephalosporins suggests that opportunities exist to promote more judicious antibiotic prescribing because most pediatric UTIs are susceptible to narrower alternatives.
    PEDIATRICS 06/2011; 127(6):1027-33. DOI:10.1542/peds.2010-3465 · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Gregory Tasian, Hillary Copp
    The Journal of Urology 04/2011; 185(4). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2011.02.1377 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    Esequiel Rodriguez, Dana A Weiss, Hillary L Copp
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    ABSTRACT: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) affects approximately 1% of children and may predispose a child with a bladder infection to develop pyelonephritis and renal scarring. To prevent these potential sequelae, one accepted treatment option for VUR includes low-dose continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) to maintain urine sterility until the condition resolves. Despite the widespread use of CAP, little data exists regarding adherence to long-term antibiotic therapy. Not only will poor adherence to CAP potentially preclude the intended benefit, but also nonadherence with antibiotic regimens may carry untoward effects including unnecessary treatment changes for presumed antibiotic failure, emergence of resistant organisms, and compromised clinical trial outcomes. We present an overview of medication adherence in children with VUR, discuss possible consequences of nonadherence to antibiotic prophylaxis, and suggest ways to improve adherence. We raise awareness of issues related to nonadherence relevant to healthcare providers, investigators, and the community.
    Advances in Urology 03/2011; 2011:134127. DOI:10.1155/2011/134127
  • Gregory E Tasian, Jenny H Yiee, Hillary L Copp
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the rate of diagnostic imaging use for the preoperative evaluation of boys with cryptorchidism and the factors that influence referring providers to obtain imaging. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey of pediatricians randomly sampled from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. The primary outcome was whether the respondent obtained imaging at the initial evaluation of boys with cryptorchidism. Participants were queried regarding practice location and type, length of time in practice, frequency of reading academic journals and the accessibility of surgical subspecialists. For those who ordered imaging, respondents were asked how frequently they ordered imaging, and were asked to select patient factors and professional beliefs that influenced their decision to obtain imaging. Factors associated with imaging use were identified using multivariate logistic regression. Of the pediatricians who acknowledged contact by surveyors 47% completed the survey and 34% of respondents reported always or usually ordering imaging. Of those who obtained imaging 96.4% used ultrasound. Pediatricians in practice fewer than 20 years (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.92-6.16) and those in nonacademic practices (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.34-6.71) were more likely to order imaging. Pediatricians obtained imaging because of beliefs that imaging reliably identifies a nonpalpable testis, reassures the family and assists the surgeon with operative planning. Ultrasound is heavily used by pediatricians for the preoperative evaluation of cryptorchidism, especially when the testis is nonpalpable. Given the poor diagnostic performance of ultrasound in this setting, we recommend developing strategies to reduce imaging use in cryptorchidism.
    The Journal of urology 03/2011; 185(5):1882-7. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2010.12.065 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    Gregory E Tasian, Hillary L Copp
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound is frequently obtained during the presurgical evaluation of boys with nonpalpable undescended testes, but its clinical utility is uncertain. To determine the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in localizing nonpalpable testes in pediatric patients. English-language articles were identified by searching Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. We included studies of subjects younger than 18 years who had preoperative ultrasound evaluation for nonpalpable testes and whose testis position was determined by surgery. Data on testis location determined by ultrasound and surgery were extracted by 2 independent reviewers, from which ultrasound performance characteristics (true-positives, false-positives, false-negatives, and true-negatives) were derived. Meta-analysis of 12 studies (591 testes) was performed by using a random-effects regression model; composite estimates of sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated. Ultrasound has a sensitivity of 45% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 29-61) and a specificity of 78% (95% CI: 43-94). The positive and negative likelihood ratios are 1.48 (95% CI: 0.54-4.03) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.46-1.35), respectively. A positive ultrasound result increases and negative ultrasound result decreases the probability that a nonpalpable testis is located within the abdomen from 55% to 64% and 49%, respectively. Significant heterogeneity limited the precision of these estimates, which was attributable to variability in the reporting of selection criteria, ultrasound methodology, and differences in the proportion of intraabdominal testes. Ultrasound does not reliably localize nonpalpable testes and does not rule out an intraabdominal testis. Eliminating the use of ultrasound will not change management of nonpalpable cryptorchidism but will decrease health care expenditures.
    PEDIATRICS 01/2011; 127(1):119-28. DOI:10.1542/peds.2010-1800 · 5.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

310 Citations
93.73 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2014
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Urology
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2010
    • American Urological Association
      Linthicum, Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Urology
      Stanford, California, United States
    • Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford
      Palo Alto, California, United States