The susceptibilities of bacteria to fluoroquinolones (FQs), especially levofloxacin, and other antimicrobial agents were investigated using 11,475 clinical isolates collected in Japan during 2002. Methicillin susceptible staphylococci, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, the family of Enterobactericeae, Haemophilus influenzae and Acinetobacter spp. exhibited stable and high susceptibilities to FQs. The rate of FQs-resistant MRSA was 80 approximately 90%, being markedly higher than that of FQs-resistant MSSA. The FQs-resistance rate of MRCNS was also higher than that of MSCNS, however, it was lower than that of MRSA. No FQs-resistant clinical isolates of Salmonella spp. were detected in any of the surveys. Thirteen of Escherichai coli 696 isolates, 8 of Klebsiella pneumoniae 630 isolates and 33 of Proteus mirabilis 373 isolates produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), furthermore 6 of 13 in E. coli, 1 of 8 in K. pneumoniae and 14 of 31 ESBL-producing isolates, and in P. mirabilis were FQs resistant. Attention should be focused in the future on the emergence of ESBL in relation to FQs resistance. The rate of FQs-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated from urinary tract infection (UTI) was 40 approximately 60%, while 15 approximately 25% of isolates from respiratory tract infection (RTI) were resistant. IMP-1 type metallo beta-lactamase producing organisms were found in 49 of P. aeruginosa 1,095 isolates, 7 of S. marcescens 586 isolates and 4 of Acinetobacter spp. 474 isolates, respectively. Glycopeptide-resistant enterococci or S. aureus was not found.
The Japanese journal of antibiotics 03/2005; 58(1):17-44.