Resuscitation 01/2012; · 3.60 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: There is little evidence from clinical trials that the use of adrenaline (epinephrine) in treating cardiac arrest improves survival, despite adrenaline being considered standard of care for many decades. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of adrenaline on patient survival to hospital discharge in out of hospital cardiac arrest.
We conducted a double blind randomised placebo-controlled trial of adrenaline in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Identical study vials containing either adrenaline 1:1000 or placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%) were prepared. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 1 ml aliquots of the trial drug according to current advanced life support guidelines. Outcomes assessed included survival to hospital discharge (primary outcome), pre-hospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category Score - CPC).
A total of 4103 cardiac arrests were screened during the study period of which 601 underwent randomisation. Documentation was available for a total of 534 patients: 262 in the placebo group and 272 in the adrenaline group. Groups were well matched for baseline characteristics including age, gender and receiving bystander CPR. ROSC occurred in 22 (8.4%) of patients receiving placebo and 64 (23.5%) who received adrenaline (OR=3.4; 95% CI 2.0-5.6). Survival to hospital discharge occurred in 5 (1.9%) and 11 (4.0%) patients receiving placebo or adrenaline respectively (OR=2.2; 95% CI 0.7-6.3). All but two patients (both in the adrenaline group) had a CPC score of 1-2.
Patients receiving adrenaline during cardiac arrest had no statistically significant improvement in the primary outcome of survival to hospital discharge although there was a significantly improved likelihood of achieving ROSC.
Resuscitation 09/2011; 82(9):1138-43. · 3.60 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Current resuscitation guidelines recommend that defibrillation be undertaken as soon as possible in patients suffering a cardiac arrest where the cardiac rhythm is either ventricular fibrillation (VF) or ventricular tachycardia (VT). Evidence from animal and clinical studies suggests that outcomes may be improved if a period of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is given prior to defibrillation. The objective of this study was to determine if 90 seconds of CPR before defibrillation improved survival.
Patients suffering non-paramedic witnessed VF/VT cardiac arrest were randomized to receive either 90 seconds of CPR before defibrillation (treatment) or immediate defibrillation (control). The study was carried out in Perth, Western Australia between June 2000 and June 2002. The primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge with secondary endpoints of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival at 1 year.
A total of 256 patients underwent randomization. Baseline characteristics including response intervals were similar in both groups. Survival to hospital discharge in the CPR first group was 4.2% (5/119) compared with 5.1% (7/137) for the immediate defibrillation group (OR 0.81; 95%CI. 0.25-2.64). No difference in those achieving ROSC was observed between the groups (OR 1.16; 95% CI 0.49-2.80).
Ninety seconds of CPR before defibrillation does not improve overall survival in patients suffering VF/VT cardiac arrests. Further studies to evaluate various aspects of this treatment strategy are required as published outcomes to date are inconclusive.
Emergency medicine Australasia: EMA 03/2005; 17(1):39-45. · 0.98 Impact Factor