[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have used AFLPs to construct a genetic linkage map on a pseudo-F(2) population of arabica coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) derived from a cross between the cultivars Mokka hybrid and Catimor. Sixty trees from this population were selected on the basis of plant height distribution to construct a linkage map. A total of 456 dominant markers and eight co-dominant markers were generated from 288 AFLP primer combinations. Of the total number of markers generated, 68% were from cv. Catimor, 30% from cv. Mokka hybrid, and 2% were co-dominant. This distribution suggests that the heterozygosity within the cv. Catimor sub-genomes was twice that within the cv. Mokka hybrid sub-genomes. Linkage groups were constructed using MAPMAKER version 3.0, resulting in 16 major linkage groups containing 4-21 markers, and 15 small linkage groups consisting of 2-3 linked markers each. The total length of the map was 1,802.8 cM, with an average distance of 10.2 cM between adjacent markers. This genetic map will serve as the framework for mapping QTL controlling source-sink traits in the same population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many diverse systems for sex determination have evolved in plants and animals. One involves physically distinct (heteromorphic) sex chromosomes (X and Y, or Z and W) that are homozygous in one sex (usually female) and heterozygous in the other (usually male). Sex chromosome evolution is thought to involve suppression of recombination around the sex determination genes, rendering permanently heterozygous a chromosomal region that may then accumulate deleterious recessive mutations by Muller's ratchet, and fix deleterious mutations by hitchhiking as nearby favourable mutations are selected on the Y chromosome. Over time, these processes may cause the Y chromosome to degenerate and to diverge from the X chromosome over much of its length; for example, only 5% of the human Y chromosome still shows X-Y recombination. Here we show that papaya contains a primitive Y chromosome, with a male-specific region that accounts for only about 10% of the chromosome but has undergone severe recombination suppression and DNA sequence degeneration. This finding provides direct evidence for the origin of sex chromosomes from autosomes.