[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of the 176 randomly selected, commensal, gram-negative bacteria isolated from healthy children with low exposure to antibiotics, 138 (78%) carried one or more of the seven macrolide resistance genes tested in this study. These isolates included 79 (91%) isolates from the oral cavity and 59 (66%) isolates from urine samples. The mef(A) gene, coding for an efflux protein, was found in 73 isolates (41%) and was the most frequently carried gene. The mef(A) gene could be transferred from the donors into a gram-positive E. faecalis recipient and a gram-negative Escherichia coli recipient. The erm(B) gene transferred and was maintained in the E. coli transconjugants but was found in 0 to 100% of the E. faecalis transconjugants tested, while the other five genes could be transferred only into the E. coli recipient. The individual macrolide resistance genes were identified in 3 to 12 new genera. Eight (10%) of the oral isolates and 30 (34%) of the urine isolates for which the MICs were 2 to >500 microg of erythromycin per ml did not hybridize with any of the seven genes and may carry novel macrolide resistance genes.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2004; 48(9):3451-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor