[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been few viable alternatives to patching the better eye as a treatment of amblyopia for more than two centuries. The success of patching depends on compliance, which is problematic for up to 59% of children and their families.
This pilot study trialled the interactive binocular treatment (I-BiT) system as an alternative amblyopia treatment in 12 older amblyopes (6.1-11.4 years, median 8.2), who had not complied with or responded to occlusion. Virtual reality images were projected to each eye simultaneously via a headset during eight treatment sessions of 25-min duration. Outcome measures were changes in high- (HCVA) and low-contrast log MAR acuity (LCVA) at 1 week, 4 weeks and a final follow-up (3-18 months) after the final treatment.
Sustained improvements in HCVA were observed in seven children (58%) and in LCVA in eight children (67%), including two for whom amblyopia was eliminated. Five children had visual acuities equivalent to 6/12 or better at least 6 months after stopping treatment, compared with one child prior to treatment. Significant improvements in HCVA occurred up to the fourth treatment; in LCVA to the seventh treatment.
Sustained improvements in visual acuity were observed for 58% of this small group of children using the I-BiT system, despite prior failure with conventional treatment. This offers hope for a potential time-saving alternative to patching, in which compliance can easily be monitored, but the results need to be validated by means of a randomised controlled trial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether orthoptic exercises are an effective way to influence the near point of convergence, fusion range and asthenopic symptoms.
Seventy-eight patients met the inclusion criteria of visual acuity 6/9 or better, no history of orthoptic treatment, squint surgery or Meares Irlen syndrome/dyslexia. Information was collected from case records related to diagnosis, near point of convergence, fusion range, prism and cover test measurements and symptoms. Type, duration and frequency of exercises were also recorded. Non-parametric statistics were applied.
Patients ranged in age from 5 to 73 years (mean 11.9). Females outnumbered males (46:32). The diagnoses were: decompensating heterophoria (n = 50) or convergence insufficiency (n = 28: primary 27; secondary 1). Exophoria was more common (n = 65), than esophoria (n = 11) or orthophoria (n = 1). Treatments were aimed at improving near point of convergence and/or reduced fusional reserves. The mean treatment period was 8.2 months. Reduced near point of convergence normalized following treatment in 47/55 cases, and mean near point of convergence improved from 16.6 to 8.4 cm (p = 0.0001). Fusional reserves normalized in 29/50. Fusional convergence improved significantly for those with exodeviation (p > 0.0006). Asthenopic symptoms improved in 65 patients. A reduction in deviation of 5 pd or more occurred in 20 patients.
Orthoptic exercises are an effective means of reducing symptoms in patients with convergence insufficiency and decompensating exophoria, and appear to target the proximal and fusional components of convergence. Their role in esophoria is unclear and needs further study.