[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate αB-crystallin malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) changes in X-ray irradiated rat lens.
Eight-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats received X-ray irradiation to the head with rest of the body protected. The exposure dose ranged from 2 to 25 Grays (Gy). The cataract status were examined by slit lamp and rated with "four-grade systems" post-irradiation. The lens MDA level, and the activities of SOD and GPx were measured in a short-term experiment post-irradiation, and αB-crystallin protein levels were quantified.
The lenses of normal control and the X-ray irradiated groups with the dose up to 10 Gy remained transparent throughout the experiment. The lens first appeared tiny scatters, and even lamellar opacities in the posterior capsule 45 days post-irradiation with the dose of 15 Gy, and progressed slowly to the advance stage of cataract; while, for the higher dose (25 Gy), the opacity of lens appeared much earlier, and progressed more rapidly to mature stage of cataract within 1 month. At the end of the observation (90 days post-irradiation), almost all lenses became complete opacity with the higher dose (25 Gy). The degree of lens opacity was rated accordingly. The lens MDA level was increased, and SOD and GPx activities were decreased with a dose-dependent manner post-irradiation. The αB-crystallin protein level was decreased dose-dependently at the end point of observation.
Oxidative events and αB-crystallin may play important roles in the pathogenesis of cataract in X-ray irradiated rat lens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the possible involvement of erythr opoietin (EPO)/erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) system in neovascularization and vascular regeneration in diabetic retinopathy (DR).
EPOR positive circulating progenitor cells (CPCs: CD34(+)) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs: CD34(+)KDR(+)) were assessed by flow cytometry in type 2 diabetic patients with different stages of DR. The cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched control patients with out diabetes ( n=7),non-proliferative DR (NPDR, n=7),non-proliferative DR (PDR, n=8), and PDR complicated with diabetic nephr opathy (PDR-DN, n=7).
The numbers of EPOR(+) CPCs and EPOR(+) EPCs were reduced remarkably in NPDR compared with the control group (both Pü0.01), whereas rebounded in PDR and PDR-DN groups in varyingdegrees. Similar changes were observed in respect of the proportion of EPOR(+)CPCs in CPCs (NPDR vs. control, Pü0.01) and that of EPOR(+) EPCs in EPCs (NPDR vs. control, Pü0.05).
Exogenous EPO, mediated via the EPO/EPOR system of EPCs, may alleviate the impaired vascular regeneration in NPDR, whereas it might aggravate retinal neovascularization in PDR due to a rebound of EPOR(+)EPCs associated with ischemia.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal 06/2011; 26(2):69-76. DOI:10.1016/S1001-9294(11)60023-0
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of intravitreal erythropoietin (EPO) for potential clinical use.
For toxicity study, 4 groups (60 rabbits) with intravitreal injection (IVit) of EPO were studied (10 U, 100 U, or 1,000 U) per eye for single injection and 0.6 U/eye (the designed therapeutic level in rabbits) for monthly injections (6X). Eye examination, flash electroretinogram (ERG), and fluorescein angiography (FA) were carried out before and after injection. The rabbits were killed for histological study at different intervals. For the pharmacokinetic study, after IVit of 5 U EPO into left eyes, 44 rabbits were killed at different intervals, and the EPO levels in vitreous, aqueous, retina and serum were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
At all of the time points examined, the eyes were within normal limits. No significant ERG or FA change was observed. The histology of retina remained unchanged. The pharmacokinetic profile of EPO in ocular compartments was summarized as follows. The half-life times of EPO in vitreous, aqueous and serum were 2.84, 3.24 and 2.12 d, respectively; and Cmax were 4615.75, 294.31 and 1.60 U/L, respectively. EPO concentrations in the retina of the injected eye peaked at 1.36 U/g protein at 6 h following injection, with the half-life observed to be 3.42 d.
IVit of EPO in a wide range is well tolerated and safe for rabbit eyes. At doses up to 10-fold higher than therapeutic levels, EPO has a pharmacokinetic profile with faster clearance, which is favorable for episodic IVit.