Gnanasekaran Devanathan

Ehime University, Matsuyama-shi, Ehime, Japan

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Publications (10)29.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Fish consumption is known to have several health benefits for humans. However, the accumulation of toxic contaminants, such as PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in fish could pose health hazards. These contaminants were measured in tilapia fish species collected from Ghana. Mean levels were PCBs (62ng/g lw), PBDEs (7.3ng/g lw) and HBCDs (1.2ng/g lw) and the predominance of CB-153, CB-138, CB-180, BDE-47 and α-HBCD is in concordance with scientific literature. The congener profiles of PBDEs and PCBs in the fish suggest that sources of Penta- and Deca-BDE technical mixtures as well as technical PCB mixture (Clophen A60) exist in Ghana, while textile operations and associated release of untreated wastewater are likely to be significant sources of HBCDs. Comparison of the results with some reported studies showed moderate contamination in Ghana although Ghana is a developing country in Africa. Concentrations of PCBs measured in all the specimens in this study were below the food safety guidelines issued by the Food and Drug Administration, USA and the European Commission. The calculated hazard index levels of the target contaminants were below the threshold value of one, indicating that the levels of the target contaminants do not seem to constitute a health risk via fish consumption, with regard to PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs, based on the limited number of samples that was accounted for in this study. However, due to the continuous discharge of untreated effluents, follow up studies are warranted as the consumption of fish is the primary route of human exposure to PCBs. This maiden report on the status of PBDEs and HBCDs in fish from Ghana will contribute to the knowledge about environmental contamination by POPs in a less industrialized region of the world so far sparsely covered in the literature.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 06/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China.
    Chemosphere 11/2012; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Perchlorate contamination was investigated in groundwater and surface water from Sivakasi and Madurai in the Tamil Nadu State of South India. Sensitive determination of perchlorate (LOQ = 0.005 μg/L) was achieved by large-volume (500 μL) injection ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of perchlorate were <0.005-7,690 μg/L in groundwater (n = 60), <0.005-30.2 μg/L in surface water (n = 11), and 0.063-0.393 μg/L in tap water (n = 3). Levels in groundwater were significantly higher in the fireworks factory area than in the other locations, indicating that the fireworks and safety match industries are principal sources of perchlorate pollution. This is the first study that reports the contamination status of perchlorate in this area and reveals firework manufacture to be the pollution source. Since perchlorate levels in 17 out of 57 groundwater samples from Sivakasi, and none from Madurai, exceeded the drinking water guideline level proposed by USEPA (15 μg/L), further investigation on human health is warranted.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 10/2012; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the contamination status and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB congeners (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and bromophenols (BPhs) in serum from e-waste recycling workers and residents near a coastal area in India. Residue levels of penta- to octa-chlorinated PCBs, penta- to octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs, 6MeO-BDE47, 6OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tri-BPh in serum from residents living near the coastal area were significantly higher than those in serum from e-waste recycling workers. Residue levels of tri- to tetra-chlorinated PCBs, tri- to tetra-chlorinated OH-PCBs, PBDEs, octa-brominated OH-PBDEs, and tetra-BPhs in serum from e-waste recycling workers were higher than those in serum from residents living near the coastal area. Principal component analysis revealed that residents living near the coastal area and e-waste recycling workers had different serum profiles of chlorinated and brominated compounds.
    Environment international 06/2012; 47:8-16. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the status of contamination of organohalogen compounds (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardant (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in human milk samples from several locations in India. The levels of OCs were significantly higher in the milk of mothers living in and near municipal dumping site than other locations indicating that the open dumping sites for municipal wastes act as potential sources of these contaminants in India. The PCB concentrations observed in this study tended to decrease compared to those in the matched locations reported previously, probably due to the restriction of technical PCB usage in India. PBDE levels in human milk were two to three folds lower than those of PCBs in all the sampling locations investigated. Congener profiles of PCBs and PBDEs were different between samples from the dumping site mothers and general populations in other areas suggesting the presence of region-specific sources and pathways. HBCDs were detected in human milk from only two sites, with much lower concentrations and detection frequencies compared to PCBs and PBDEs. When hazard quotients (HQs) of PCBs and PBDEs were estimated for infant health risk, the HQs in some milk samples from the dumping site exceeded the threshold value (HQ>1) of PCBs, indicating the potential risk for infants in the specific site.
    Environment international 02/2012; 39(1):87-95. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was evaluated in Ghana using breast milk samples collected in 2004 and 2009. Mean levels and ranges of PBDEs (4.5; 0.86-18 ng/g lw) and PCBs (62; 15-160 ng/g lw) observed in the present study were unexpectedly high, in spite of the fact that Ghana is a non-industrialized country when compared with many of the Asian and European countries. Significant increases were found in the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs over the years, while no significant increase was observed for HBCDs. Estimated hazard quotient (HQ) showed that all the mothers had HQ values exceeding the threshold of 1 for PCBs, indicating potential health risk for their children. PCBs in dirty oils and obsolete equipment should be of concern as potential sources in Ghana, and e-waste recycling with little or no experience in safe handling could be a threat to this sub-region noted for unregulated disposal of e-waste. The results may point towards an increase in trends in human milk in Ghana, especially in the larger cities but further analysis would be required to confirm this upward trend in levels. This is the first study to report BFRs in human breast milk from Africa, and undoubtedly from Ghana.
    Environment international 04/2011; 37(5):921-8. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to understand the current contamination status of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in human breast milk from three metropolitan cities in India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata). Among the OCs analyzed, DDTs were predominant followed by HCHs and PCBs. CHLs and HCB levels were much lower. Contamination patterns were different in human milk found in our previous study in Chennai, a metropolitan city in southern India, indicating region specific exposure routes and variable sources. In comparison with previous data, levels of DDTs and HCHs generally declined with time, implying the effect of various bans and restrictions on their usage. No association between concentrations of OCs and demographic characteristics such as parity and age of mothers was observed which might be due to narrow range of mother's age. Estimated daily intake shows that some infants are exposed to OCs to a greater extent, particularly HCHs than the guideline standard.
    Environmental Pollution 10/2008; 157(1):148-54. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are additive flame retardants widely used in plastics, furniture, textiles and electronics such as computers, DVDs and TV-sets. BFRs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic and have the propensity to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in food chains. In this study, concentrations of PBDEs, HBCDs and PCBs in 21 cow milk samples from Ghana were measured. PCBs and PBDEs were detected in all samples but not HBCDs. Levels of PCBs ranged from 2.1–45 ng/g lipid wt. in rural and 2.5–87 ng/g lipid wt. in urban samples. PBDE levels were 0.047– 2.8 (rural) and 0.47–11 ng/g lipid wt. (urban). BDE-47 and BDE-99 were found in all samples with high proportion, whereas BDE-209 was detected in only 5 of the 21 samples but in high concentrations. Lack of correlation between concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs may suggest different exposure sources of PCBs and PBDEs. There is no production of BFRs and PCBs in Ghana and thus, significant sources/routes for PBDEs and PCBs could be dust-ingested food, and any electronic and electrical equipment or their wastes imported from developed countries, found at waste dumping sites where sometimes the cattle graze. This is the first study on BFRs in cow milk from Ghana.
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    ABSTRACT: The research work done by the Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Japan for the past three decades in India on its pollution scenario shows the need for every concern and a coordinated effort from the viewpoint of global pollution sources of persistent chemicals in the country. Our past and present results obtained through analyses of freshly collected as well as archived samples in our es-BANK shows the possibility of using the status of pollution in the environmental and biological matrices of India as tracers and indicators of global pollution. Clear spatial and temporal variations in the levels of persistent chemicals like DDTs, HCHs, CHLs, HCB, PCBs, dioxins and related compounds (DRCs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) like PBDEs and HBCDs, etc. were noticed. Further, the vast data source that we have gathered through our past and present studies indicates, in the absence necessary facilities and manpower to monitor the toxic chemicals at present, there is a need for the establishment of at least a pilot scale specimen bank in India, to archive the biological and environmental samples for future use.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to estimate the current contamination status of organohalogen compounds (OHCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in human milk (n = 55), fish (n = 100) and dust samples (n = 35) collected from different locations in India as limited information is available. High levels of PCBs were found in human milk from the municipal waste dumping site in India suggesting greater risk for infants living near these sites. Different congener and isomer profiles among contaminants between dumping site and general populations indicate the presence of region-specific sources and pathways. Relatively high levels of PCBs and PBDEs were present in farm-raised fish than wild fish, but the dietary intake values were far lower than the guideline values indicating less risk through fish consumption. Significantly higher levels of OHCs were found in dust samples from e-waste recycling locations, suggesting that the crude e-waste recycling/dismantling activities are the major emission sources of these contaminants. The hazard quotients (HQs) values of PCBs were above one for the infants and toddlers living near the municipal dumping and e-waste recycling areas indicating high risk, which warrants regular monitoring and regulations to reduce the pollution levels.