Ghaleb Nseir

University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland

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Publications (9)31.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract We report the case of an inaugural episode of generalized seizures in a 40-year-old male with a history of chronic kidney disease associated with TSC2-PKD1 contiguous gene syndrome. This patient was under prophylactic treatment of phenytoin since 2 years because of a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Laboratory results revealed therapeutic range of phenytoin levels, but severe hypocalcemia associated with profound vitamin D deficiency that could not be explained by secondary hyperparathyroidism alone. The interaction of phenytoin on the P-450 cytochromes activity has been demonstrated to accelerate the rate of 25-hydroxivitamin D3 and 1α,25-dihydroxivitamin D3 catabolism into inactive metabolites, leading to hypocalcemia. Physicians should be aware of significant phenytoin interactions on vitamin D metabolism which may lead to symptomatic hypocalcemia in patients with chronic kidney disease.
    Renal Failure 06/2013; 35(6). DOI:10.3109/0886022X.2013.801300 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of glucosuria in the absence of hyperglycemia is distinctive for renal glucosuria. SGLT2 mutations provoke familial renal glucosuria characterized by persistent glucosuria in the absence of any other renal tubular dysfunction. Renal glucosuria associated with others proximal tubular dysfunctions points to Fanconi syndrome. This generalized dysfunction of proximal tubule needs to be treated and may progress regarding its aetiology to chronic renal failure. The development and study of models of Fanconi syndrome has recently contributed to a better knowledge of the mechanisms implicated in the tubular transport of glucose and low-molecular-weight-proteins. This article reviews these recent developments.
    Revue médicale suisse 03/2013; 9(378):636-40.
  • Kidney International 03/2012; 81(6):601. DOI:10.1038/ki.2011.449 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In humans, circulating CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells contain mainly regulatory T cells (Treg; FoxP3(+)IL-7Rα(low)), but a small subset is represented by activated effector T cells (Tact; FoxP3(-)IL-7Rα(high)). The balance between Tact and Treg may be important after transplantation. The aim of this study was first to analyze and correlate CD4(+)CD25(high) Tact and Treg with the clinical status of kidney transplant recipients and second to study prospectively the effect of two immunosuppressive regimens on Tact/Treg during the first year after transplantation. CD4(+)CD25(high) Tact and Treg were analyzed by flow cytometry, either retrospectively in 90 patients greater than 1 year after kidney transplantation (cross-sectional analysis) or prospectively in 35 patients receiving two immunosuppressive regimens after kidney transplantation (prospective analysis). A higher proportion of Tact and a lower proportion of Treg were found in the majority of kidney recipients. In chronic humoral rejection, a strikingly higher proportion of Tact was present. A subgroup of stable recipients receiving calcineurin inhibitor-free immunosuppression (mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, or sirolimus) had Tact values that were similar to healthy individuals. In the prospective analysis, the proportion of Tact significantly increased in both immunosuppression groups during the first year after transplantation. These data highlight distinct patterns in the proportion of circulating Tact depending on the clinical status of kidney recipients. Moreover, the prospective analysis demonstrated an increase in the proportion of Tact, regardless of the immunosuppressive regimen. The measurement of Tact, in addition to Treg, may become a useful immune monitoring tool after kidney transplantation.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2011; 6(8):2025-33. DOI:10.2215/CJN.09611010 · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the impact of a preemptive strategy after discontinuation of antiviral prophylaxis in the prevention of late-onset cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients. Patients undergoing kidney transplantation at the University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) between November 2003 and November 2007 were included if they were donor or recipient (D/R) seropositive for CMV. All patients received 3 months of prophylaxis with valganciclovir, followed by monitoring of CMV DNAemia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) every 15 days during 3 additional months. Valganciclovir was restarted if CMV PCR was more than or equal to 10,000 copies/mL. The primary endpoint of the study was the incidence of late-onset CMV disease. RESULTS.: Eighty-six kidney transplant recipients were included; 30 patients were D+/R- and 56 patients were R+ for CMV. At 6 months posttransplant, CMV DNAemia had occurred in 31 of 86 (36%) patients: 13 of 30 (43%) in the D+/R- group and 18 of 56 (32%) in the R+ group (P = 0.35). In the D+/R- group, among the 13 patients with CMV DNAemia, 7 (54%) patients developed late-onset CMV disease, simultaneously to the first positive viral load (n = 5) or after detection of low-grade viremia (n = 2). Only two patients received a preemptive treatment. In the R+ group, all positive PCR results were below the established cutoff. Thus, these 18 patients were not treated, and none of them developed late-onset CMV disease (R+ vs. D+/R-: P < 0.001). Within the limitations of a noncontrolled study, our data indicate that a preemptive strategy after 3 months of valganciclovir prophylaxis for CMV is not useful in R+ kidney transplant recipients. In D+/R- patients, this approach should be further evaluated.
    Transplantation 01/2011; 91(2):251-5. DOI:10.1097/TP.0b013e318200b9f0 · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 10/2010; 90(7):804-5. DOI:10.1097/TP.0b013e3181f00a18 · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • British Journal of Dermatology 03/2010; 162(5):1148-50. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09687.x · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    International Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2008; 12. DOI:10.1016/S1201-9712(08)60029-6 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) is a serious complication and cause of graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. In the absence of specific antiviral drugs, early detection of the disease and reduction of immunosuppressive regimen is the cornerstone of therapy. Cidofovir, a nucleoside analogue, has been found to inhibit BK virus (BKV) replication in vitro and has been proposed as treatment of refractory PVAN at low doses; however, its efficacy has never been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. Cidofovir therapy (0.5 mg/kg at a 2-week interval for eight consecutive doses) was initiated in two patients with biopsy-proven PVAN and persistent BKV DNA viraemia (> or = 10,000 copies/ml despite sustained reduction of the immunosuppressive regimen). In addition to these two case reports, we performed a critical review of the literature on the use of cidofovir in PVAN. No significant decrease of BKV viral load in blood was observed during cidofovir therapy and in follow-up of the two patients treated with cidofovir. Our literature review identified 21 publications reporting the use of cidofovir for the treatment of PVAN. All were case reports or small series. The efficacy of cidofovir therapy could not be assessed in 17 of these publications because of lack of data or concomitant reduction of immunosuppressive regimen. The four remaining publications were case reports. In vitro and clinical data to support the efficacy of cidofovir in the treatment of PVAN are currently lacking. More promising compounds should be identified for further clinical studies.
    Antiviral therapy 01/2008; 13(8):1001-9. · 3.14 Impact Factor