G. H. Moriarty-Schieven

National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (100)344.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present SCUBA-2 450\mu m and 850\mu m observations of the Serpens MWC 297 region, part of the JCMT Gould Belt Survey of nearby star-forming regions. Simulations suggest that radiative feedback influences the star-formation process and we investigate observational evidence for this by constructing temperature maps. Maps are derived from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes and a two component model of the JCMT beam for a fixed dust opacity spectral index of beta = 1.8. Within 40 of the B1.5Ve Herbig star MWC 297, the submillimetre fluxes are contaminated by free-free emission with a spectral index of 1.03\pm0.02, consistent with an ultra-compact HII region and polar winds/jets. Contamination accounts for 73\pm5 per cent and 82\pm4 per cent of peak flux at 450\mu m and 850\mu m respectively. The residual thermal disk of the star is almost undetectable at these wavelengths. Young Stellar Objects are confirmed where SCUBA-2 850\mu m clumps identified by the fellwalker algorithm coincide with Spitzer Gould Belt Survey detections. We identify 23 objects and use Tbol to classify nine YSOs with masses 0.09 to 5.1 M\odot. We find two Class 0, one Class 0/I, three Class I and three Class II sources. The mean temperature is 15\pm2K for the nine YSOs and 32\pm4K for the 14 starless clumps. We observe a starless clump with an abnormally high mean temperature of 46\pm2K and conclude that it is radiatively heated by the star MWC 297. Jeans stability provides evidence that radiative heating by the star MWC 297 may be suppressing clump collapse.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A photometric and spectral study of the variable star V2494 Cyg in the L 1003 dark cloud is presented. The brightness of the star, formerly known as HH 381 IRS, increased by 2.5 mag in R (probably in the 1980s) and since then has remained nearly constant. Since the brightness increase, V2494 Cyg has illuminated a bipolar cometary nebula. The stellar spectrum has several features typical of the FU Ori type, plus it exhibits very strong Halpha and forbidden emission lines with high-velocity components. These emission lines originate in the HH jet near the star. The kinematic age of the jet is consistent with it forming at the time of the outburst leading to the luminosity increase. V2494 Cyg also produces a rather extended outflow; it is the first known FUor with both an observed outburst and a parsec-sized HH flow. The nebula, illuminated by V2494 Cyg, possesses similar morphological and spectral characteristics to Hubble's Variable Nebula (R Monocerotis/NGC 2261).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2013; · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Outflows and jets are the first signposts of ongoing star formation processes in any molecular cloud, yet their study in optical bands provides limited results due to the large extinction present. Near-infrared unbiased wide-field observations in the H2 1-0 S(1) line at 2.122{\mu}m alleviates the problem, enabling us to detect more outflows and trace them closer to their driving sources. Aims. As part of a large-scale multi-waveband study of ongoing star formation in the Braid Nebula Star Formation region, we focus on a one square degree region that includes Lynds Dark Nebula 1003 and 1004. Our goal is to find all of the near-infrared outflows, uncover their driving sources and estimate their evolutionary phase. Methods. We use near-infrared wide-field observations obtained with WFCAM on UKIRT, in conjunction with previously-published optical and archival MM data, to search for outflows and identify their driving sources; we subsequently use colour-colour analysis to determine the evolutionary phase of each source. Results. Within a one square degree field we have identified 37 complex MHOs, most of which are new. After combining our findings with other wide-field, multi-waveband observations of the same region we were able to discern 28 outflows and at least 18 protostars. Our analysis suggests that these protostars are younger and/or more energetic than those of the Taurus-Auriga region. The outflow data enable us to suggest connection between outflow ejection and repetitive FU Ori outburst events. We also find that star formation progresses from W to E across the investigated region.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2012; 542(A111):36. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a 1.1 mm map of the Braid Nebula star formation region in Cygnus OB7 taken using Bolocam on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Within the 1 deg2 covered by the map, we have detected 55 cold dust clumps all of which are new detections. A number of these clumps are coincident with IRAS point sources although the majority are not. Some of the previously studied optical/near-IR sources are detected at 1.1 mm. We estimate total dust/gas masses for the 55 clumps together with peak visual extinctions. We conclude that over the whole region, approximately 20% of the clumps are associated with IRAS sources suggesting that these are protostellar objects. The remaining 80% are classed as starless clumps. In addition, both FU Orionis (FUor) like objects in the field, the Braid Star and HH 381 IRS, are associated with strong millimeter emission. This implies that FUor eruptions can occur at very early stages of pre-main-sequence life. Finally, we determine that the cumulative clump mass function for the region is very similar to that found in both the Perseus and ρ Ophiuchus star-forming regions.
    The Astronomical Journal 03/2011; 141(4):139. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large sub-mm survey with Herschel will enable many exciting science opportunities, especially in an era of wide-field optical and radio surveys and high resolution cosmic microwave background experiments. The Herschel-SPIRE Legacy Survey (HSLS), will lead to imaging data over 4000 sq. degrees at 250, 350, and 500 micron. Major Goals of HSLS are: (a) produce a catalog of 2.5 to 3 million galaxies down to 26, 27 and 33 mJy (50% completeness; 5 sigma confusion noise) at 250, 350 and 500 micron, respectively, in the southern hemisphere (3000 sq. degrees) and in an equatorial strip (1000 sq. degrees), areas which have extensive multi-wavelength coverage and are easily accessible from ALMA. Two thirds of the of the sources are expected to be at z > 1, one third at z > 2 and about a 1000 at z > 5. (b) Remove point source confusion in secondary anisotropy studies with Planck and ground-based CMB data. (c) Find at least 1200 strongly lensed bright sub-mm sources leading to a 2% test of general relativity. (d) Identify 200 proto-cluster regions at z of 2 and perform an unbiased study of the environmental dependence of star formation. (e) Perform an unbiased survey for star formation and dust at high Galactic latitude and make a census of debris disks and dust around AGB stars and white dwarfs. Comment: White paper supplement to the proposal submitted by the HSLS science team to ESA for Herschel open-time programs
    07/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: A large sub-mm survey with Herschel will enable many exciting science opportunities, especially in an era of wide-field optical and radio surveys and high resolution cosmic microwave background experiments. The Herschel-SPIRE Legacy Survey (HSLS), will lead to imaging data over 4000 sq. degrees at 250, 350, and 500 micron. Major Goals of HSLS are: (a) produce a catalog of 2.5 to 3 million galaxies down to 26, 27 and 33 mJy (50% completeness; 5 sigma confusion noise) at 250, 350 and 500 micron, respectively, in the southern hemisphere (3000 sq. degrees) and in an equatorial strip (1000 sq. degrees), areas which have extensive multi-wavelength coverage and are easily accessible from ALMA. Two thirds of the of the sources are expected to be at z > 1, one third at z > 2 and about a 1000 at z > 5. (b) Remove point source confusion in secondary anisotropy studies with Planck and ground-based CMB data. (c) Find at least 1200 strongly lensed bright sub-mm sources leading to a 2% test of general relativity. (d) Identify 200 proto-cluster regions at z of 2 and perform an unbiased study of the environmental dependence of star formation. (e) Perform an unbiased survey for star formation and dust at high Galactic latitude and make a census of debris disks and dust around AGB stars and white dwarfs.
    06/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The CO(3–2) line has been observed in the atmosphere of Saturn. The CO(3–2) observation proves that an external source of CO exists in the stratosphere of the planet. Aims. We attempt to constrain the type and magnitude of the external source of CO in the atmosphere of Saturn, by observing the emission core of the CO(6–5) line. Methods. We observed the CO(6–5) line at the limbs of Saturn. We analysed the observations by means of a 1-D transport model of the atmosphere of Saturn, coupled with a radiative transfer model. Results. We obtained a high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum that confirms the existence of an external source of CO in the stratosphere of Saturn.We demonstrated that a cometary origin of CO is the most probable, an impact occurring 220±30 years ago and depositing (2.1 ± 0.4) × 1015 g of CO above 0.1 mbar. However, we cannot totally reject the possibility of CO originating (at least partially) in a steady source. Conclusions. Complete photochemical modelling of the oxygen compounds is required to determine realistic error bars of the inferred quantities and to conclude on the origin of CO.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2010; 510:A88. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have performed the first observation of the CO(3-2) spectral line in the atmosphere of Saturn with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We have used a transport model of the atmosphere of Saturn to constrain the origin of the observed CO. The CO line is best-fit when the CO is located at pressures less than (15±2) mbar with a mixing ratio of (2.5±0.6)×10-8 implying an external origin. By modeling the transport in Saturn’s atmosphere, we find that a cometary impact origin with an impact 200–350 years ago is more likely than continuous deposition by interplanetary dust particles (IDP) or local sources (rings/satellites). This result would confirm that comet impacts are relatively frequent and efficient providers of CO to the atmospheres of the outer planets. However, a diffuse and/or local source cannot be rejected, because we did not account for photochemistry of oxygen compounds. Finally, we have derived an upper limit of ∼1×10-9 on the tropospheric CO mixing ratio.
    Icarus 10/2009; 203(2):531-540. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the discovery of the radio, infrared, and optical transient coincident with an X-ray transient proposed to be the afterglow of GRB 980703. At later times when the transient has faded below detection, we see an underlying galaxy with R=22.6; this galaxy is the brightest host galaxy (by nearly 2 mag) of any cosmological gamma-ray burst (GRB) thus far. In keeping with an established trend, the GRB is not significantly offset from the host galaxy. Interpreting the multiwavelength data in the framework of the popular fireball model requires that the synchrotron cooling break was between the optical and X-ray bands on 1998 July 8.5 UT and that the intrinsic extinction of the transient is AV=0.9. This is somewhat higher than the extinction for the galaxy as a whole, as estimated from spectroscopy.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2009; 508(1):L21. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have discovered an extreme high-velocity bipolar CO outflow in the vicinity of NGC 2023, with total outflow velocities of ~200 km s-1. At very high velocities this outflow is jetlike with an opening angle ≤4°, while it shows a separate outflow lobe at low velocities. The outflow is bipolar and exhibits a clear mirror symmetry, which suggests that the source powering the outflow is episodic or precessing. The dynamical timescales for the outflow are ≤3000 yr. We identify the source driving the CO jet with a deeply embedded low-luminosity submillimeter double source (separation ~23''), where the primary component lies on the symmetry axis of the outflow and has all the signatures of a "class 0" protostellar object. Analysis of molecular data and (sub)millimeter photometry suggests that the driving source is cold and compact, with a luminosity of 10 L☉ and a total mass of 1.8-4.6 M☉. It has no near-IR counterpart, it drives an extremely young outflow, and it emits a large fraction of its luminosity in the submillimeter regime. Both millimeter sources have low dust emissivity, β ~ 0.8-1.3, similar to what is found for other class 0 objects, while the surrounding molecular cloud core appears to have a β ~ 2.0, the canonical value for "normal" interstellar dust in the submillimeter regime.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2009; 519(1):236. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New wide-field images of the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud at 850 and 450 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope reveal a wide variety of large-scale features that were previously unknown. Two linear features, each 4' (0.2 pc) in length, extend to the north of the bright emission region containing SM1 and VLA 1623. These features may correspond to the walls of a previously unidentified outflow cavity or the boundary of a photon-dominated region powered by a nearby B star. A previously unidentified source is located in the northeast region of the image. The properties of this source (diameter ~5000 AU, mass ~0.3-1 M) suggest that it is a preprotostellar core. Two arcs of emission are seen in the direction of the northwest extension of the VLA 1623 outflow. The outer arc appears relatively smooth at 850 μm and is estimated to have a mass of ~0.3 M, while the inner arc breaks up into a number of individual clumps, some of which are previously identified protostars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 513(2):L139. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using SCUBA on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, we obtained a map of 850 μm continuum emission from the Orion B molecular cloud. The map is 20' × 40' in extent and covers much of the northern half of the giant molecular cloud. A total of 67 discrete continuum sources, or clumps, have been identified, many of which are grouped in three regions, near NGC 2071IR, NGC 2068, and HH 24/25/26. Masses of the sources range from 0.2 to 12 M☉. About half of the area of our 850 μm map is covered by the current release of the 2MASS infrared survey. Of 40 clumps covered by the 2MASS, 14 have associated infrared sources detected in J, H, and K. Maps of 13CO J = 2-1 and C18O J = 2-1 line emission were obtained for two regions in order to find the gas column density. Formaldehyde spectra were obtained toward eight of the continuum clumps to determine the gas kinetic temperature. Three of the clumps with measured temperature are hot (Tkin ≥ 80 K) while the other five are cold (Tkin ≤ 20 K). The gas-to-dust ratios differ substantially between the two regions mapped in CO. In the NGC 2068 region we find close to constant ratios of dust-to-gas emission, except in one compact source. However, in the HH 24/25/26 region the dust-to-gas emission ratio varies substantially with some of the brightest dust continuum sources almost absent in CO emission. One explanation is that CO molecules have frozen onto grains in the dense cores. Why this freeze-out should happen in the HH 24/25/26 cores but not in the NGC 2068 cores remains unexplained. A 12CO J = 3-2 map of the NGC 2068 region shows patches of high-velocity gas associated with five of the compact continuum sources. The presence of outflows provides strong evidence that the group of sources south of NGC 2068 is actively forming stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 556(1):215. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present broadband radio observations spanning 1.4-350 GHz of the afterglow of GRB 991216, taken 1-80 days after the burst. The optical and X-ray afterglow of this burst were fairly typical and are explained by a jet fireball. In contrast, the radio afterglow is unusual in two respects: (1) the radio light curve does not show the usual rise to maximum flux on timescales of weeks and instead appears to be declining already on day 1; and (2) the power-law indices show significant steepening from the radio through the X-ray bands. We show that the standard fireball model, in which the afterglow is from a forward shock, is unable to account for point 1, and we conclude that the bulk of the radio emission must arise from a different source. We consider two models, neither of which can be ruled out with the existing data. In the first (conventional) model, the early radio emission is attributed to emission from the reverse shock, as in the case of GRB 990123. In the second "dual fireball" model, the radio emission originates from the forward shock of an isotropically energetic fireball (1054 ergs) expanding into a tenuous medium (10-4 cm-3), while the optical and X-ray emission originate in a jetlike outflow. Finally, we note that the near-IR bump of the afterglow is similar to that seen in GRB 971214, and no fireball model can explain this bump.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 538(2):L129. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a radio counterpart to GRB 990123. In contrast to previous well-studied radio afterglows that rise to peak flux on a timescale of a week and then decay over several weeks to months, the radio emission from this gamma-ray burst (GRB) was clearly detected 1 day after the burst, after which it rapidly faded away. The simplest interpretation of this "radio flare" is that it arises from the reverse shock. In the framework of the afterglow models discussed to date, a forward-shock origin for the flare is ruled out by our data. However, at late times, some radio afterglow emission (commensurate with the observed late-time optical emission and the optical afterglow) is expected from the forward shock. The relative faintness of the observed late-time radio emission provides an independent indication of a jetlike geometry in this GRB. We use the same radio observations to constrain two key parameters of the forward shock (the peak flux and peak frequency) to within a factor of 2. These values are inconsistent with the notion advocated by several authors that the prompt optical emission detected by the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment smoothly joins the optical afterglow emission. Finally, in hindsight, we now recognize another such radio flare, and this suggests that one out of eight GRBs has a detectable radio flare. This abundance, coupled with the reverse-shock interpretation, suggests that the radio flare phenomenon has the potential to shed new light on the physics of reverse shocks in GRBs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 522(2):L97. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results on the optimum reconstruction of chop data taken using the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Using an artificial data set with known noise properties, we analyze three techniques for constructing images of the sky from the chop data: Emerson Fourier deconvolution, matrix inversion, and maximum entropy reconstruction. We conclude that a matrix inversion formulation via an iterative procedure produces the best image reconstructions. We apply the three reconstruction techniques to produce maps of the calibration point source CRL 618 and the ρ Ophiuchi A core at 850 μm and use Wiener filtering to remove the high-frequency noise component from the matrix inversion method.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 12/2008; 131(2):505. · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New submillimeter images have been obtained of the dust disk around the nearby K2 V star Eridani, with the total data set now spanning 5 yr. These images show the distribution of dusty debris generated by comet collisions, reflecting clearing and perturbations by planets, and may give insights to early conditions in the solar system. The structure seen around Eri at 850 μm and published in 1998 is confirmed in the new observations, and the same structure is also seen in an image obtained for the first time at 450 μm. The disk is inclined by ≈25° to the sky plane, with emission peaking at 65 AU, a 105 AU radius outer edge, and an inner cavity fainter by a factor of ≈2. The structure within the dust ring suggests perturbations by a planet orbiting at tens of AU, and long-term tracking of these features will constrain its mass and location. A preliminary analysis shows that two clumps and one arc appear to follow the stellar motion (i.e., are not background objects) and have tentative evidence of counterclockwise rotation of ~1° yr-1. Within the ring, the mass of colliding comets is estimated at 5-9 M⊕, similar to the primordial Kuiper Belt, and so any inner terrestrial planets may be undergoing an epoch of heavy bombardment.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 619(2):L187. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from a survey of the central 700 arcmin2 region of the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud at 850 μm using the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Using the clump-finding procedure developed by Williams et al., we identify 55 independent objects and compute size, flux, and degree of central concentration. Comparison with isothermal, pressure-confined, self-gravitating Bonnor-Ebert spheres implies that the clumps have internal temperatures of 10-30 K and surface pressures P/k = 106-7 K cm-3, consistent with the expected average pressure in the ρ Ophiuchi central region, P/k ~ 2 × 107 K cm-3. The clump masses span 0.02-6.3 M☉ assuming a dust temperature Td ~ 20 K and a dust emissivity κ850 = 0.01 cm2 g-1. The distribution of clump masses is well characterized by a broken power law, N(M) M-α, with α = 1.0-1.5 for M > 0.6 M☉ and α = 0.5 for M ≤ 0.6 M☉, although significant incompleteness may affect the slope at the lower mass end. This mass function is in general agreement with the ρ Ophiuchi clump mass function derived at 1.3 mm by Motte et al. The two-point correlation function of the clump separations is measured and reveals clustering on size scales r < 3 × 104 AU with a radial power-law exponent γ = 0.75.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 545(1):327. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength observations and near-infrared K-band imaging toward the bright gamma-ray burst GRB 010222. Over seven different epochs, a constant source was detected with an average flux density of 3.74 ± 0.53 mJy at 350 GHz and 1.05 ± 0.22 mJy at 250 GHz, giving a spectral index α = 3.78 ± 0.25 (where F να). We rule out the possibility that this emission originated from the burst or its afterglow, and we conclude that it is due to a dusty, high-redshift starburst galaxy (SMM J14522+4301). We argue that the host galaxy of GRB 010222 is the most plausible counterpart of SMM J14522+4301, based in part on the centimeter detection of the host at the expected level. The optical/near-IR properties of the host galaxy of GRB 010222 suggest that it is a blue sub-L* galaxy, similar to other GRB host galaxies. This contrasts with the enormous far-infrared luminosity of this galaxy based on our submillimeter detection (LBol ≈ 4 × 1012 L☉). We suggest that this GRB host galaxy has a very high star formation rate, SFR ≈ 600 M☉ yr-1, most of which is unseen at optical wavelengths.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 565(2):829. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present radio observations of the afterglow of the bright γ-ray burst GRB 980329 made between 1 month and several years after the burst, a reanalysis of previously published submillimeter data, and late-time optical and near-infrared (NIR) observations of the host galaxy. From the absence of a spectral break in the optical/NIR colors of the host galaxy, we exclude the earlier suggestion that GRB 980329 lies at a redshift of z 5. We combine our data with the numerous multiwavelength observations of the early afterglow, fit a comprehensive afterglow model to the entire broadband data set, and derive fundamental physical parameters of the blast wave and its host environment. Models for which the ejecta expand isotropically require both a high circumburst density and extreme radiative losses from the shock. No low-density model (n 10 cm-3) fits the data. A burst with a total energy of ~1051 ergs, with the ejecta narrowly collimated to an opening angle of a few degrees, driven into a surrounding medium with density of ~20 cm-3, provides a satisfactory fit to the light curves over a range of redshifts.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 577(1):155. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surprisingly large column densities of H have been detected using infrared absorption spectroscopy in seven diffuse cloud sight lines (Cygnus OB2 12, Cygnus OB2 5, HD 183143, HD 20041, WR 104, WR 118, and WR 121), demonstrating that H is ubiquitous in the diffuse interstellar medium. Using the standard model of diffuse cloud chemistry, our H column densities imply unreasonably long path lengths (~1 kpc) and low densities (~3 cm-3). Complimentary millimeter-wave, infrared, and visible observations of related species suggest that the chemical model is incorrect and that the number density of H must be increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Possible solutions include a reduced electron fraction, an enhanced rate of H2 ionization, and/or a smaller value of the H dissociative recombination rate constant than implied by laboratory experiments.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 567(1):391. · 6.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
344.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2009
    • National Research Council Canada
      • Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1997–2008
    • Joint Astronomy Centre
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Honolulu, HI, United States
  • 1988–1990
    • Queen's University
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1987–1988
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States