[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer as well as colorectal surgery is associated with increased oxidative stress through different mechanisms. In this study the levels of different oxidative stress markers were comparatively assessed in patients who underwent laparoscopic or conventional resection for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Sixty patients with colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopic (LS) or open surgery (OS). Lipid, protein, RNA, and nitrogen damage was investigated by measuring serum 8-isoprostanes (8-epiPGF(2α)), protein carbonyls (PC), 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), respectively. The primary end point of the study was to analyze and compare serum levels of the oxidative stress markers between the groups. RESULTS: Postoperative serum levels of 8-epiPGF(2α), 3-NT, and 8-OHG were significantly lower in the LS group at 24 h after surgery (p < 0.05). At 6 h postoperatively, the levels of 8-epiPGF(2α) and 3-NT were significantly lower in the LS group (p < 0.05). No difference in the levels of PC was found between the two groups at any time point. In the OS group, postoperative levels of 8-epiPGF(2α) were significantly lower than the preoperative values (p < 0.01). In the LS group, the postoperative values of 8-epiPGF(2α), 3-NT, and 8-OHG were significantly lower than the preoperative values (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with lower oxidative stress compared to open surgery. 8-epiPGF(2α) was the most suitable marker for readily defining the oxidative status in patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic proctitis is a rare disease which is usually encountered in elderly with comorbidities. We present a case of an 80-year old man with severe coronary disease who presented with severe hematochezia and hypotension. Endoscopy revealed a rectal mass 3-4 cm above the dental line and rectosigmoid mucosal inflammation compatible with ischemic colitis. The rectal insult was so intense that it resembled a neoplasmatic lesion. We discuss the causes, the prognostic factors, and the clinical and therapeutic challenges of this rare, albeit life-threatening entity, and we review the relative literature. A percentage of 10%-20% of patients with ischemic colitis usually have a distal potentially obstructing lesion or disorder such as cancer, diverticulitis or fecal impaction. Ischemic colitis, when mucosal and submucosal edema is severe and hemorrhagic nodules are large enough, can mimic a neoplasmatic lesion. The best treatment approach is a conservative management initially with a close clinical followup and after stabilization a repetition of rectal endoscopy with new biopsies. Early recognition of this clinical entity is of paramount importance to implement appropriate therapy (conservative or surgical) and avoid potentially fatal treatment of presumed inflammatory or infectious bowel diseases.
Case reports in gastrointestinal medicine. 01/2013; 2013:853825.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery is an evolution of laparoscopic surgery aiming at decreasing the patient's parietal trauma associated with abdominal operations. LESS has been found so far to be efficient and have the same good results as the standard four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. α-Defensins are antimicrobial peptides of the organism. They are the first cell components against pathogens. Cytokines are also mediators in the response to trauma. The aim of this study was to compare the inflammatory reaction in LESS and four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Forty patients with noncomplicated cholelithiasis were randomly assigned into one of two groups. Group A included the patients who would undergo four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy and group B included the patients who would undergo LESS cholecystectomy. These patients had a BMI < 30, were ASA I or II, and had no previous upper-GI surgery. Blood was taken preoperatively and 6 and 24 h postoperatively. hsCRP (with automated analyzer) and α-defensins (using ELISA) were calculated for each sample. The same postoperative protocol was followed for both groups. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the results. Pain was calculated with a visual analog scale (VAS) for shoulder and abdomen at 6 and 24 h. Hospital stay, nausea, and pain medication needed was noted.
The α-defensins value was statistically significantly higher in the 24-h samples (P < 0.001) for LESS cholecystectomy. No statistically significant difference was shown for hsCRP, even though P = 0.05 for the 24-h samples with the values of LESS higher. No LESS was converted to a classical laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and none of the patients of either group needed conversion to open cholecystectomy. Pain was statistically significantly less for the LESS group at the 24-h interval (P < 0.0001). Less medication was needed for LESS patients after the 6th postoperative hour (P = 0.007).
Higher inflammatory reaction in LESS cholecystectomy could be the result of greater tension on the tissues. More studies are needed to conclude if this has a significant clinical expression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical interventions activate a cascade of reactions that result in an aseptic inflammatory reaction. This inflammatory response initiates the organism's innate immunity. Laparoscopic surgery reduces the trauma, and patients benefit from diminished surgical trauma and maintained immune function. Cytokine levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) are related to the magnitude of surgical trauma and surgical stress. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 are the first sensor-recognition receptors of the invading pathogens for the innate immune response. This study aimed to compare the inflammatory response and then the stress response during laparoscopic and open colectomy for cancer by calculating TLR-2 and TLR-4 as the first sensor-recognition receptors together with interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP).
A total 40 patients with colorectal cancer were randomized in two groups: group A (open colectomy, n = 20) and group B (laparoscopic colectomy, n = 20). An epidural catheter was placed in all patients 1 h preoperatively. Rupivocaine was administered perioperatively and 48 h postoperatively. Blood samples were taken for calculation of IL-6, TNF-α, hsCRP, TLR-2, and TLR-4 preoperatively and 5 min after deflation of pneumoperitoneum (group B) or 5 min after division of the colon (group A), then 6 and 24 h postoperatively.
The mean operative time was 115 for group A and 142 min for group B. The mean blood loss was respectively 240 and 105 ml (P < 0.001), and the mean hospital stay was respectively 8 and 5 days (P < 0.05). The IL-6 level was significant higher in group A than in group B at 6 and 24 h postoperatively (P < 0.0001), and the hsCRP level was significant higher in group A than in group B at 24 h postoperatively (P < 0.001). The TNF-α values did not differ between the two groups. The TLR-2 level was significantly higher in group A than in group B at 5 min (P = 0.013) and 24 h (P = 0.007) postoperatively. The TLR-4 level was significant higher in group A than in group B at 5 min postoperatively (P = 0.03).
The inflammatory response and the resultant stress response are significantly less during laparoscopic colectomy than during open colectomy for colorectal cancer. This is an obvious short-term clinical benefit for the patient, providing tinder for further study to investigate the long-term results of laparoscopic colectomy versus open colectomy for colorectal cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical procedures are related to the activation of the inflammatory reaction. This is called surgical stress. It is believed that diminished surgical trauma reduces surgical stress. The laparoscopic approach reduces trauma, but the systemic immune responses are still invariably activated. Cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) are the main markers in the study of inflammatory or stress response. α-Defensins play an important role in host defense, acting early in phagocytosis. α-Defensins, as early markers-earlier than cytokines-of the inflammatory response, have been used, together with high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), to determine the inflammatory response in laparoscopic and open colectomy for cancer.
A total of 40 patients with colorectal cancer were randomized to two groups: group A (n = 20), open colectomy; group B (n = 20), laparoscopic colectomy. One hour preoperatively an epidural catheter was placed in all patients and rupivacaine was administered perioperatively and again 48 h postoperatively. Blood samples were taken for calculating α-defensins, IL-6, and hs-CRP levels preoperatively, 5 min after division of the colon (group A), or 5 min after deflation of pneumoperitoneum (group B), 6 h and 24 h postoperatively.
The mean operative time was 115 min for group A and 142 min for group B (p < 0.05). The mean blood loss was 240 ml and 105 ml, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean hospital stay was 8 days and 5 days, respectively (p < 0.05). α-Defensin levels were statistically significantly lower in group B than in group A, 5 min and 24 h postoperatively (p < 0.002 and p < 0.007, respectively). The IL-6 levels were statistically significantly lower in group B than in group A, 6 h and 24 h postoperatively (p < 0.0001 at both time intervals), whereas the levels of hs-CRP were significantly lower in group B than in group A 24 h postoperatively (p < 0.001).
The present study confirms the results of previous studies, that the inflammatory immune response and surgical stress are significantly less after laparoscopic colectomy versus open colectomy for colorectal cancer. More investigation is needed to study if surgical stress has any influence on survival of these patients.
World Journal of Surgery 05/2011; 35(8):1911-7. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The attempt to further reduce operative trauma in laparoscopic cholecystectomy has led to new techniques such as natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). These new techniques are considered to be painless procedures, but no published studies investigate the possibility of different pain scores in these new techniques versus classic laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this randomized control study, we investigated pain scores in SILS cholecystectomy versus classic laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Forty patients (34 women and 6 men) were randomly assigned to two groups. In group A (n = 20) four-port classic laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Patients in group B (n = 20) underwent SILS cholecystectomy. In all patients, preincisional local infiltration of ropivacaine around the trocar wounds was performed. Infusion of ropivacaine solution in the right subdiaphragmatic area at the beginning of the procedure plus normal saline infusion in the same area at the end of the procedure was performed in all patients as well. Shoulder tip and abdominal pain were registered at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postoperatively using visual analog scale (VAS).
Significantly lower pain scores were observed in the SILS group versus the classic laparoscopic cholecystectomy group after the first 12 h for abdominal pain, and after the first 6 h for shoulder pain. Total pain after the first 24 h was nonexistent in the SILS group. Also, requests for analgesics were significantly less in the SILS group, while no difference was observed in incidence of nausea and vomiting between the two groups.
SILS cholecystectomy, as well as the invisible scar, has significantly lower abdominal and shoulder pain scores, especially after the first 24 h postoperatively, when this pain is nonexistent. (Registration Clinical Trial number: NTC00872287, www.clinicaltrials.gov ).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) has become established as the procedure of choice in the surgical management of the majority of patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Postoperative paraesophageal herniation has an incidence range up to 7% in the immediate postoperative period.
A prospective randomized trial was scheduled to study the role of posterior gastropexy, in combination with LNF, in prevention of paraesophageal herniation and improvement of postoperative results in surgical treatment of GERD.
Eighty-two patients with GERD were randomized to LNF combined with (group A, n = 40) or without (group B, n = 42) posterior gastropexy. Subjective evaluation using disease-specific and generic questionnaires and structured interviews, and objective evaluation by endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and 24-h pH monitoring, were performed before operation, at 2 and 12 months after surgery, and then every year. Crura approximation was performed by stitches if the diameter was less than 6 cm, or with a patch to reinforce the conventional crural closure or by tension-free technique to close the hiatus. Posterior gastropexy (group A) was performed with one stitch between the posterior wall of the wrap and the crura near the arcuate ligament.
Sixteen patients of group A and 15 patients of group B with concomitant abdominal diseases had simultaneous procedures [cholecystectomy 25, vagotomy 2, ventral hernia repair 1, gastric polypectomy 1, gastric fundus diverticulectomy 1, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) wedge resection 1]. In mean follow-up of 48 +/- 26 months (range 7-94 months), one patient of group B presented with paraesophageal herniation in the first postoperative month (reoperation), while recurrent gastroesophageal reflux (Visick III or IV), successfully treated by medication, was noted in three patients of group B and in one patient of group A. Only mild dysphagia, during the first two postoperative months, was noted in nine patients of group A and eight patients of group B. Six patients of each group with Barrett's esophagus had endoscopic improvement after the second postoperative month. Visick score in groups A/B was I in 26/11 (P < 0.0001), II in 13/27 (P = 0.037), III in 1/2 (not significant, NS), and IV in 0/2. Generally, Visick score was I or II in 39/38 in groups A/B (97.5%/90.5%, NS) and III or IV in 1/4 (2.5%/9.5%, P < 0.0001).
LNF combined with posterior gastropexy may prevent postoperative paraesophageal or sliding herniation in surgical treatment of GERD, providing better early and long-term postoperative results. (Registered Clinical Trial number: NCT00872755. www.clinicaltrials.gov .).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This was a retrospective study that evaluated the surgical outcomes of laparoscopic surgery (LS) for rectal cancer, in comparison with a case control series of open surgery (OS), during an 8-year period.
Between October 1998 and December 2006, 203 patients with rectal malignancies underwent colectomy; 146 of them had colectomy with the traditional technique (OS), while 57 underwent resection of rectal cancer laparoscopically (LS). The LS group was compared with 60 patients from the OS group (selected from the 146 OS group patients), matched by size, sex, age, anatomical location of the tumor, type, extent of resection, and pathological stage. Data were obtained from patients' medical records. Statistical analysis was performed with the t test and chi-square test. All data are expressed as mean +/- standard error of the mean (SEM).
Mean age of the LS group was 63.7+/-12 years versus 69+/-12 years in the OS group. There were more men than women in both the laparoscopic (33 males, 24 females) and OS groups (35 men, 25 women). The mean follow-up period was 38 months and 78 months for LS and OS groups, respectively. The procedure included low anterior resection (43 in LS and 45 in OS), and 13 patients in both groups underwent abdominoperineal resection and 3 transanal resections (2 in OS and 1 in LS). Mean tumor size was 4.2+/-2.12cm in the LS versus 5.2+/-2.02cm in the OS group. Conversion to an open procedure occurred in 4 patients (6.7%), all in the first 20 cases. Postoperative complications developed in 28 patients (11.7%), 13 in the LS group and 15 in the OS group. Median operative time was longer, but median blood loss was significantly lower in the LS group. The length of hospital stay was significantly shorter for the LS group.
Laparoscopic surgery is feasible and safe for patients with rectal cancer and provides benefits during the postoperative period without increased morbidity or mortality.
JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons 01/2009; 13(4):564-73. · 0.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A clinical trial was designed to assess the use of preincisional and intraperitoneal ropivacaine, combined or not with normal saline, to reduce pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).
For this trial, 120 patients were randomly assigned to six groups. For all the patients, preincisional local infiltration of ropivacaine around the trocar wounds was performed. Group A had infusion of ropivacaine at the beginning of the LC. Group B had infusion of ropivacaine at the beginning of the LC plus normal saline infusion at the end. Group C had normal saline infusion and ropivacaine at the end of the LC. Group D had infusion of ropivacaine at the beginning of the LC plus normal saline infusion at the end and a subhepatic closed drain. Group E had ropivacaine at the end of the LC. Group F (control group) had neither ropivacaine nor normal saline infusion. Shoulder tip and abdominal pain were registered at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postoperatively using a visual analog score (VAS).
Significantly lower pain scores were observed in group B than in group A at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h or in groups C, D, E, and F at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Group A also had significantly lower pain scores than groups C, D, E, and F at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Requests for analgesics also were significantly less in group B than in group A at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h or in groups C, D, and E at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Demand for additional analgesia was less in group B than in groups A, C, D, E, and F at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h and in group A than in groups C, D, E, and F at 2, 4, 6, and 12 h.
Preincisional local infiltration plus intraperitoneal infusion of ropivacaine at the beginning of LC combined with normal saline infusion at the end of the procedure is a safe and valid method for reducing pain after LC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unresectable obstructing rectal cancer with synchronous hepatic metastases is usually a fatal disease. This prospective study was scheduled to treat this difficult condition using a multimodal curative strategy combined with a two-stage surgical treatment. Patients with T4N2 or N3M1 rectal cancer and hepatic metastases underwent a two-stage surgical treatment; in the first stage, a decompressing colostomy plus radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in liver metastases. In the second stage, a colectomy was done with stoma closing and resection of superficial necrotic hepatic tumors, plus repetition of RFA in recurrent or new hepatic tumors. Four patients were included, with 1 to 8 (total 20) hepatic metastases, each <5 cm in diameter. In the first stage, two patients were operated on by open approach and two laparoscopically. All hepatic tumors were treated by RFA to produce at least a 1-cm tumor-free margin. After chemoradiation of the rectal tumor, the second stage of surgical treatment was successful in colectomies and stoma closing. Three had complete necrosis of hepatic tumors and one a recurrent tumor plus two new metastases treated by RFA. Two patients died 14 and 42 months after the first stage of surgical treatment, and the other two patients are alive. One of them is disease-free 54 months after the first stage and the other with new recurrence 52 months after the first stage of the procedure. The multimodal curative strategy for the treatment of unresectable obstructing rectal cancer with synchronous hepatic metastases, containing a two-stage surgical treatment with RFA of hepatic metastases and chemoradiation of the rectal tumor between the two stages of the procedure, is a promising method. A larger number of patients with long-term follow-up is necessary to confirm these findings.
The American surgeon 12/2007; 73(12):1218-23. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydatid disease (HD) is a parasitic infection often caused by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus and rarely by Echinococcus multilocularis in endemic areas. This study aims to emphasize the perioperative administration of anthelmintic therapy over the different surgical procedures aimed at curing HD, because radical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment for hepatic echinococcosis. From October 1988 to September 2003, a total of 140 patients with echinococcal disease were studied: 125 presented with liver HD and 15 with extrahepatic echinococcus cysts (79 men and 62 women; median age, 47.8 years). Right hypochondriac pain, hepatomegaly, and dyspeptic complaints were the major symptoms, whereas cholestatic jaundice and itching were observed in 37 patients (28%). Ultrasound scan and computed tomography scan were performed in all patients preoperatively. The initial diagnosis was confirmed in all cases postoperatively by histological and anatomo-pathological examinations. All patients were given albendazole preoperatively for 5-7 days (10 mg/kg), continued for 4-6 weeks postoperatively in case where the protoscoleces were viable. The majority of the patients presented with one solitary cyst (68%), whereas 45 of the remaining (32%) presented with multiple cysts (two to four). The mean diameter of the cyst was 7 cm. One hundred thirty patients (93%) presented for regular follow-ups, and the median follow-up period was 52 months (range, 23-78 months). In conclusion, surgical treatment is indicated for liver HD because the rate for a definitive cure of the disease is high, and complications and recurrence risk is low. Albendazole treatment should preferably be administered perioperatively and always after R1 resection.
International surgery 01/2006; 91(2):112-6. · 0.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrence after laparoscopic ventral hernioplasty is a severe problem despite surgeons' increased experience in recent years. It is well known that the main reasons for recurrences are lack of experience, bad technique, infection, and seroma. The aim of this study was to investigate the events, what caused recurrences, and the technique to prevent recurrence in laparoscopic ventral hernioplasty.
From May 1996 through December 2005, 78 patients who underwent 80 laparoscopic ventral hernioplasties (67 incisional hernias, 8 large epigastric, 5 large umbilical) were separated into 2 groups. Group A (n=28): ePTFE dual mesh patch secured intraperitoneally by full-thickness stitches and endoscopic tacks to cover the hernia defect and to overlap healthy margins by at least 2.5 cm (n=17, subgroup A1) or 4 cm (n=11, subgroup A2). In subgroup A2, a full-thickness suture was placed in the center of the hernia defect to reduce the "dead space." Group B (n=52): The same technique as in group A, but the hernia sac was cauterized by monopolar cautery (n=5) or Harmonic scalpel (n=47). The overlapping healthy margins were at least 2.5 cm (n=16, subgroup B1) or 4 cm (n=36, subgroup B2). In subgroup B2, a full-thickness suture was placed in the center of the hernia defect to reduce the dead space. Postoperatively, CT-scans were used to confirm complications or recurrences.
In group A, 7 seromas [4 clinical (A1) and 3 subclinical (A1=1, A2=2)], 3 hematomas (A1=2, A2=1), 2 infections (A1), and 3 recurrences (10.7%) were observed (A1=2 or 11.8%, A2=1 or 9%). Two recurrences were observed in symptomatic seromas (subgroup A1) and 1 in a patient without seroma (subgroup A2). In group B, 1 subclinical seroma, 1 hematoma, and 1 recurrence (6.2%) were noted in subgroup B1. In subgroup B2, no recurrence was observed. Significantly fewer total seromas occurred in group B compared with group A (P=0.004). The total recurrence rate in group B was 1.95% (NS vs group A), but a significant difference was observed between subgroups A1 and B2 (P=0.036).
Cauterization of the hernia sac and a central full-thickness suture to reduce dead space seems to prevent seroma. This technique combined with a large patch to cover at least 4 cm of healthy margins and the surgeon's experience may be sufficient to prevent recurrences in laparoscopic ventral hernioplasty.
JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons 12(1):51-7. · 0.81 Impact Factor