[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wound healing consists of a complex, dynamic and overlapping process involving inflammation, proliferation and tissue remodeling. A better understanding of wound healing process at the molecular level is needed for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) controls programmed necrosis in response to TNF-α during inflammation and has been shown to be highly induced during cutaneous wound repair. However, its role in wound healing remains to be demonstrated. To study this, we created dorsal cutaneous wounds on male wild-type (WT) and RIPK3-deficient (Ripk3-/-) mice. Wound area was measured daily until day 14 post-wound and skin tissues were collected from wound sites at various days for analysis. The wound healing rate in Ripk3-/- mice was slower than the WT mice over the 14-day course; especially, at day 7, the wound size in Ripk3-/- mice was 53% larger than that of WT mice. H&E and Masson-Trichrome staining analysis showed impaired quality of wound closure in Ripk3-/- wounds with delayed re-epithelialization and angiogenesis and defected granulation tissue formation and collagen deposition compared to WT. The neutrophil infiltration pattern was altered in Ripk3-/- wounds with less neutrophils at day 1 and more neutrophils at day 3. This altered pattern was also reflected in the differential expression of IL-6, KC, IL-1β and TNF-α between WT and Ripk3-/- wounds. MMP-9 protein expression was decreased with increased Timp-1 mRNA in the Ripk3-/- wounds compared to WT. The microvascular density along with the intensity and timing of induction of proangiogenic growth factors VEGF and TGF-β1 were also decreased or delayed in the Ripk3-/- wounds. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Ripk3-/- mice migrated less towards chemoattractants TGF-β1 and PDGF than MEFs from WT mice. These results clearly demonstrate that RIPK3 is an essential molecule to maintain the temporal manner of the normal progression of wound closure.
PLoS ONE 10/2015; 10(10):e0140514. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0140514 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8) is a secretory glycoprotein with a known role in inflammation. In sepsis, interleukin (IL)-17 acts as a proinflammatory cytokine to exaggerate systemic inflammation. We hypothesize that MFG-E8 downregulates IL-17 expression in sepsis.
Sepsis was induced in 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Recombinant mouse MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8) at a dosage of 20 μg/kg body weight or phosphate-buffered saline was concurrently injected. After 10 hours, blood and spleen samples were harvested for analysis. For in vitro studies, splenocytes isolated from healthy mice pretreated with rmMFG-E8 and splenocytes from MFG-E8 knockout (mfge8(-/-)) mice were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin, followed by measurement of IL-17 expression with either quantitative PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
At 10 hours after CLP, rmMFG-E8 inhibited the elevated levels of IL-17 protein in serum by 31%, compared with the vehicle. In the spleen, rmMFG-E8 reduced the upregulated IL-17 mRNA and protein levels by 81% and 51%, respectively. This correlated with a significant reduction in organ injury markers AST and ALT in sepsis after administration of rmMFG-E8. In vitro treatment of splenocytes isolated from healthy mice with rmMFG-E8 showed significant downregulation in PMA/ionomycin-induced IL-17 expression. In contrast, CD4 T-cells from mfge8(-/-) mice showed significant upregulation of IL-17 compared with wild-type mice. The phosphorylated level of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was downregulated in spleen tissue of septic mice treated with rmMFG-E8. Conversely, mfge8(-/-) mice showed increased phosphorylated STAT3 compared with wild-type mice after sepsis.
Our findings demonstrate MFG-E8-mediated downregulation of IL-17 expression, implicating its potential as a novel therapeutic agent against sepsis.
Surgery 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2015.08.011 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Hemorrhagic shock is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units in patients under the age of 35. Several organs, including the lungs, are seriously affected by hemorrhagic shock and inadequate resuscitation. Excess free fatty acids have shown to trigger inflammation in various disease conditions. C75 is a small compound that inhibits fatty acid synthase, a key enzyme in the control of fatty acid metabolism that also stimulates fatty acid oxidation. We hypothesized that C75 treatment would be protective against hemorrhagic shock.
Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were cannulated with a femoral artery catheter and subjected to controlled bleeding. Blood was shed to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 30 mm Hg for 90 minutes, then resuscitated over 30 minutes with a crystalloid volume equal to twice the volume of shed blood. Fifteen minutes into the 30-minute resuscitation, the rats received either intravenous infusion of C75 (1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle (20% dimethyl sulfoxide). Blood and tissue samples were collected 6 hours after resuscitation (ie, 7.5 hours after hemorrhage) for analysis.
After hemorrhage and resuscitation, C75 treatment decreased the increase in serum free fatty acids by 48%, restored adenosine triphosphate levels, and stimulated carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity. Administration of C75 decreased serum levels of markers of injury (aspartate aminotransferase, lactate, and lactate dehydrogenase) by 38%, 32%, and 78%, respectively. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were also decreased significantly by 38% and 40%, respectively. These changes correlated with decreases in neutrophil infiltration in the lung, evidenced by decreases in Gr-1-stained cells and myeloperoxidase activity and improved lung histology. Finally, administration of C75 decreased pulmonary mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-6 by 87% and 65%, respectively.
Administration of C75 after hemorrhage and resuscitation decreased the increase in serum free fatty acids, decreased markers of tissue injury, downregulated the expression of inflammatory mediators, and decreased neutrophil infiltration and lung injury. Thus, the dual action of inhibiting fatty acid synthesis and stimulating fatty acid oxidation by C75 could be developed as a promising adjuvant therapy strategy to protect against hemorrhagic shock.
Surgery 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2015.07.036 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) occurs in various clinical situations and causes local and remote organ injury, especially in the lungs, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The maintenance of mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for cell survival and is regulated in part by sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an energy-sensing enzyme. We hypothesized that SIRT1 activation with SRT1720 would reduce local and remote organ injury after intestinal I/R. Intestinal I/R was induced by the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery of adult male C57BL/6 mice for 45 min, followed by reperfusion for 4 h. SRT1720 or vehicle was injected intravenously at the time of reperfusion. Blood, small intestine, and lung tissues were collected for analysis. The SRT1720 treatment of I/R mice resulted in a 57% increase in protein levels of succinate dehydrogenase, an index of mitochondrial mass, and a 120% increase in messenger RNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A, a marker for mitochondrial biogenesis. The microscopic architecture and apoptosis of the gut tissue was improved in the SRT1720-treated I/R mice. SRT1720 decreased intestinal messenger RNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α by 60% and inducible nitric oxide synthase to baseline after I/R. Systemic inflammation, as determined by serum interleukin-6, was reduced in treated mice. Lung injury, as measured by histological architecture and myeloperoxidase activity, and lung apoptosis were also improved after the SRT1720 treatment. SRT1720 preserved mitochondrial biogenesis and mass, leading to inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby protecting against intestinal I/R-induced injury. Thus, the SIRT1-mediated pathway is a promising target for the treatment of intestinal I/R injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sepsis and septic shock are enormous public health problems with astronomical financial repercussions on health systems worldwide. The central nervous system (CNS) is closely intertwined in the septic process but the underlying mechanism is still obscure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a ubiquitous energy sensor enzyme and plays a key role in regulation of energy homeostasis and cell survival. In this study, we hypothesized that activation of AMPK in the brain would attenuate inflammatory responses in sepsis, particularly in the lungs. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboneucleotide (AICAR, 20 ng), an AMPK activator, or vehicle (normal saline) by intracerebro-ventricular (ICV) injection, followed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) at 30 min post-ICV. The septic mice treated with AICAR exhibited elevated phosphorylation of AMPKα in the brain along with reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), compared to the vehicle. Similarly, the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, keratinocyte-derived chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 as well as myeloperoxidase activity in the lungs of AICAR-treated mice were significantly reduced. Moreover, histological findings in the lungs showed improvement of morphologic features and reduction of apoptosis with AICAR treatment. We further found that the beneficial effects of AICAR on septic mice were diminished in AMPKα2 deficient mice, showing that AMPK mediates these effects. In conclusion, our findings reveal a new functional role of activating AMPK in the CNS to attenuate inflammatory responses and acute lung injury in sepsis.
Molecular Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.2119/molmed.2015.00179 · 4.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Total colectomy with ileostomy placement is a treatment for patients with inflammatory bowel disease or familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). A rare and late complication of this treatment is carcinoma arising at the ileostomy site. We describe two such cases: a 78-year-old male 30 years after subtotal colectomy and ileostomy for FAP, and an 85-year-old male 50 years after colectomy and ileostomy for ulcerative colitis. The long latency period between creation of the ileostomies and development of carcinoma suggests a chronic metaplasia due to an irritating/inflammatory causative factor. Surgical excision of the mass and relocation of the stoma is the mainstay of therapy, with possible benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy. Newly developed lesions at stoma sites should be biopsied to rule out the possibility of this rare ileostomy complication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous wound continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in the setting of diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Despite advances in wound care management, there is still an unmet medical need exists for efficient therapy for cutaneous wound. Combined treatment of adrenomedullin (AM) and its binding protein-1 (AMBP-1) is protective in various disease conditions. To examine the effect of the combination treatment of AM and AMBP-1 on cutaneous wound healing, full-thickness 2.0-cm diameter circular excision wounds were surgically created on the dorsum of rats, saline (vehicle) or AM/AMBP-1 (96/320 μg kg BW) was topically applied to the wound daily and wound size measured. At days 3, 7, and 14, skin samples were collected from the wound sites. AM/AMBP-1 treated group had significantly smaller wound surface area than the vehicle group over the 14-day time course. At day 3, AM/AMBP-1 promoted neutrophil infiltration (MPO), increased cytokine levels (IL-6 and TNF-α), angiogenesis (CD31, VEGF and TGFβ-1) and cell proliferation (Ki67). By day 7 and 14, AM/AMBP-1 treatment decreased MPO, followed by a rapid resolution of inflammation characterized by a decrease in cytokines. At the matured stage, AM/AMBP-1 treatment increased the alpha smooth muscle actin expression (mature blood vessels) and Masson-Trichrome staining (collagen deposition) along the granulation area, and increased MMP-9 and decreased MMP-2 mRNA expressions. TGFβ-1 mRNA levels in AM/AMBP-1 group were 5.3 times lower than those in the vehicle group. AM/AMBP-1 accelerated wound healing by promoting angiogenesis, collagen deposition and remodeling. Treatment also shortened the days to reach plateau for wound closure. Thus, AM/AMBP-1 may be further developed as a therapeutic for cutaneous wound healing.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120225. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120225 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic shock is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in surgery and trauma patients. Despite a large number of preclinical trials conducted to develop therapeutic strategies against hemorrhagic shock, there is still an unmet need for effective therapy for hemorrhage patients. Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls developmental processes and cellular regeneration owing to its central role in cell survival and proliferation. We therefore hypothesized that the activation of Wnt signaling reduces systemic injury caused by hemorrhagic shock.
Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent hemorrhagic shock by controlled bleeding of the femoral artery to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 30 mm Hg for 90 minutes, followed by resuscitation with crystalloid equal to two times the shed blood volume. After resuscitation, animals were infused with Wnt agonist (5 mg/kg) or vehicle (20% dimethyl sulfoxide in saline). Blood and tissue samples were collected 6 hours after resuscitation for analysis.
Hemorrhagic shock increased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate, and lactate dehydrogenase. Treatment with Wnt agonist significantly reduced these levels by 40%, 36%, and 77%, respectively. Wnt agonist also decreased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine by 34% and 56%, respectively. The treatment reduced lung myeloperoxidase activity and interleukin 6 messenger RNA by 55% and 68%, respectively, and significantly improved lung histology. Wnt agonist treatment increased Bcl-2 protein to sham values and decreased cleaved caspase 3 by 46%, indicating attenuation of hemorrhage-induced apoptosis in the lungs. Hemorrhage resulted in significant reductions of β-catenin protein levels in the lungs as well as down-regulation of a Wnt target gene, cyclin D1, while Wnt agonist treatment preserved these levels.
The administration of Wnt agonist attenuated hemorrhage-induced organ injury, inflammation, and apoptosis. This was correlated with the preservation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin activation could be protective in hemorrhagic shock.
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 03/2015; 78(4). DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000566 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is encountered in various clinical conditions and contributes to multi organ failure and mortality as high as 60-80%. Intestinal I/R not only injures the intestine but affects remote organs such as the lung leading to acute lung injury. The development of novel and effective therapies for intestinal I/R are critical for the improvement of patient outcome. AICAR is a cell permeable compound that has shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects. The objective is to determine that treatment with AICAR attenuates intestinal I/R injury and subsequent acute lung injury (ALI).
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (275-325 g) underwent intestinal I/R injury with blockage of the superior mesenteric artery for 90 min and subsequently reperfusion. At the initiation of reperfusion, vehicle or AICAR (30 mg/kg BW) were given IV for 30 min. At 4 h after reperfusion, blood and tissues were collected for further analyses.
Treatment with AICAR significantly decreased the gut damage score and the water content indicating improvement in histological integrity. The treatment also attenuated tissue injury and proinflammatory cytokines, and reduced bacterial translocation to the gut. AICAR administration after intestinal I/R maintained lung integrity, attenuated neutrophil chemotaxis and infiltration to the lungs, and decreased lung levels of TNF-α and IL-6. Inflammatory mediators, iNOS and COX-2 proteins, were decreased in the lungs and lung apoptosis were significantly reduced after AICAR treatment.
These data indicate that AICAR could be developed as an effective and novel therapeutic for intestinal I/R and subsequent ALI.
Molecular Medicine 01/2015; 20. DOI:10.2119/molmed.2014.00134 · 4.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI) following shock states or transplantation causes tissue damage and delayed graft function, respectively. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a critical role in nephrogenesis. We therefore hypothesized that pharmacological activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by Wnt agonist, a synthetic pyrimidine, could protect kidneys from IRI. Adult male rats were subjected to bilateral clamping of the renal pedicles with microvascular clips for 60 min, followed by reperfusion. Wnt agonist (5 mg/kg BW) or vehicle (20% DMSO in saline) was administered intravenously 1 h prior to ischemia. Blood and renal tissues were collected 24 h after IR for evaluation. Renal IR caused a significant reduction of β-catenin and its downstream target gene cyclin D1 by 65% and 39%, respectively, compared to the sham, while Wnt agonist restored them to the sham levels. The number and intensity of cells staining with the proliferation marker Ki67 in ischematized kidneys were enhanced by Wnt agonist. The integrity of the renal histological architecture in the Wnt agonist group was better preserved than the vehicle group. Wnt agonist significantly lowered serum levels of creatinine, AST, and LDH, inhibited the production of IL-6 and IL-1β, and MPO activities. Lastly, Wnt agonist reduced iNOS, nitrotyrosine proteins and 4-hydroxynonenal in the kidneys by 60%, 47% and 21%, respectively, compared to the vehicle. These results indicate that Wnt agonist improves renal regeneration and function while attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress in the kidneys after IR. Thus, pharmacologic stimulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling provides a beneficial effect on the prevention of renal IRI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the ability to identify the presence of transforming colonocytes in a field adjacent to an existing primary colon cancer, it is now possible to reduce if not eliminate one of the major causes leading to anastomotic tumor recurrence. In a review of those colectomy cases that presented post-surgery with anastomotic recurrence, we noted that mucosal abnormalities could readily be detected adjacent to the primary lesion. Such changes had gone unrecognized at the time of surgery, when standard histologic procedures were employed. By utilizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that defined the presence of tumor immunogenic proteins, we were able to reexamine so-called normal biopsy sites adjacent to the tumor. Here, it was possible to demonstrate the presence of altered cellular activity in existing phenotypically normal appearing colonocytes that were in the process of transforming to malignancy.
Eight consecutive patients that had been admitted for evaluation and resection of an anastomotic recurrence post colectomy, were studied with regard to possible etiologic factors. The original margins incorporated into the anastomosis were re-examined by immunohistochemistry employing those monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) designed to target colon tumor antigen. This antigen had previously been shown to be expressed only in colon cancer and not in adjacent normal tissue. In addition, biopsies from margins of resection in five patients free of recurrence following colectomy were also studied along with colon specimens from 50 normal patients, non-demonstrating expression of tumor antigen in the normal appearing colonocytes.
In each of the patients who had presented with anastomotic recurrence, normal appearing colonocytes defined by light microscopy and found adjacent to the previously resected primary lesion, expressed tumor antigen. The antigen detected in these colonocytes proved to be identical to antigen expressed in the anastomotic recurrence giving credence to the concept that these normal appearing cells in proximity to the tumor were responsible for the regrowth of tumor in the suture line used to establish continuity of the bowel.
Based on the findings of this preliminary retrospective study it is felt that at the time of performing a colectomy for a malignant lesion of the bowel, that it is important that those normal appearing colonocytes adjacent to tumor be evaluated for expression of tumor associated antigen. Excluding such cells from an anastomosis, may help to assure that tumor recurrence will be minimized if not totally eliminated.
Journal of Cancer 10/2014; 5(9):784-9. DOI:10.7150/jca.9485 · 3.27 Impact Factor